Quran and Science

Scientific truths and Discoveries in the Holy Quran.
Fourteen centuries ago, God sent down the Qur'an to mankind as a book of guidance. He called upon people to be guided to the truth by adhering to this book. From the day of its revelation to the Day of Judgment, this last divine book will remain the sole guide for humanity.
The Quran is the most miraculous, the most authentic record of abiding realities. It encompasses the evolving nature of times and ever-expanding scope of world phenomena. It is the exuberance of religious thoughts and excellence of intellectual and spiritual aspirations. It is the vision of creation that sustains the craftsmanship in varying forms and dimensions. The immaculate conceptions that bring color and credence are the heritage of humanity.
The Quran is the most awe-inspiring and breathtaking event in the annals of world history. It is the culmination of all revelations and a gateway to understanding the pattern of revelatory realities. Its uniqueness is a recognized reality which transcends the ordinaries of temporal phenomena. Its literary style is so alive and its flavor is so fresh that even after centuries there are no traces of theirs ever getting state or obtuse.
It is a miraculous effect which is found in its hues and forms which neither diminish nor need any dusting or polishing. With the ever new and fresh vistas the Quran continues to create wonderful galaxies of color and luster to make life creative and productive.
The Quran as the divine scripture is the perennial source of guidance and blessings for the mankind. The mystics and scholars, believers and non believers read into its verses an unending series of connotations with a profound range of implications.
Many scientists and philosophers find in its predictions the evidence of their own discoveries. It is a prelude to the awakening, enlightenment and growth in every age.
Ever since the dawn of human life on this planet, Man has always sought to understand Nature, his own place in the scheme of Creation and the purpose of Life itself. In this quest for Truth, spanning many centuries and diverse civilizations, organized religion has shaped human life and determined to a large extent, the course of history. While some religions have been based on books, claimed by their adherents to be divinely inspired, others have relied solely on human experience.
Al-Qur’an, the main source of the Islamic faith, is a book believed by Muslims, to be of completely Divine origin. Muslims also believe that it contains guidance for all mankind. Since the message of the Qur’an is believed to be for all times, it should be relevant to every age. Does the
Qur’an passes this test?
There was a time, in the history of world civilization, when ‘miracles’, or what was perceived to be a miracle, took precedence over human reason and logic. But how do we define the term ‘miracle’? A miracle is anything that takes place out of the normal course of life and for which humankind has no explanation. However, we must be careful before we accept something as a miracle. An article in ‘The Times of India’ Mumbai, in 1993 reported that ‘a saint’ by the name ‘Baba Pilot’ claimed to have stayed continuously submerged under water in a tank for three consecutive days and nights.
However, when reporters wanted to examine the base of the tank of water where he claimed to have performed this ‘miraculous’ feat, he refused to let them do so. He argued by asking as to how one could examine the womb of a mother that gives birth to a child. The ‘Baba’ was hiding something. It was a gimmick simply to gain publicity. Surely, no modern man with even the slightest inkling towards rational thinking would accept such a ‘miracle’. If such false miracles are the tests of divinity, then we would have to accept Mr. C. Sorcar, the world famous magician known for his ingenious magical tricks and illusions, as the best God-man.
A book, claiming Divine origin, is in effect, claiming to be a miracle. Such a claim should be easily verifiable in any age, according to the standards of that age. Muslims believe that the Qur’an is the last and final revelation of God, the miracle of miracles revealed as a mercy to mankind.
For many centuries, humankind was unable to study certain data contained in the verses of the Qur’an because they did not possess sufficient scientific means. It is only today that numerous verses of the Qur’an dealing with natural phenomena have become comprehensible. A reading of old commentaries on the Qur’an, however knowledgeable their authors may have been in their day, bears solemn witness to a total inability to grasp the depth of meaning in such verses. Even in the 20th century, with its compartmentalization of ever-increasing knowledge, it is still not easy for the average scientist to understand everything he reads in the Qur’an on such subjects, without having recourse to specialized research. This means that to understand all such verses of the Qur’an, one is nowadays required to have an absolutely encyclopedic knowledge embracing many scientific disciplines.
There are also some very rare examples of statements in the Qur’an which have not, as yet, been confirmed by modern science. It can be refer by pointing out that all the evidence available today leads scientists to regard them as being highly probable. An example of this is the statement in the Qur’an that life has an aquatic origin
(“And I created every living thing out of water” Qur’an, 21:30).
These scientific considerations should not, however, make us forget that the Qur’an remains a religious book. In the Qur’an, whenever humans are invited to reflect upon the wonders of creation and the numerous natural phenomena, they can easily see that the obvious intention is to stress Divine Omnipotence. The fact that, in these reflections, One can find allusions to data connected with scientific knowledge is surely another of God’s gifts whose value must shine out in an age where scientifically based atheism seeks to gain control of society at the expense of the belief in God. But the Qur’an does not need unusual characteristics like this to make its supernatural nature felt. Scientific statements such as these are only one specific aspect of the Islamic revelation which other religious books do not share.
Scientist’s comments on Quran:

Some scientists commented on Quran like this:
Dr. Gerald C. Goeringer:
Dr. Gerald C. Goeringer is Course Director and Associate Professor of Medical Embryology at the Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, and USA. During the Eighth Saudi Medical Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Professor Goeringer stated the following in the presentation of his research paper:

“In a relatively few ayahs (Quranic verses) is contained a rather comprehensive description of human development from the time of commingling of the gametes through organogenesis. No such distinct and complete record of human development, such as classification, terminology, and description, existed previously. In most, if not all, instances, this description antedates by many centuries the recording of the various stages of human embryonic and fetal development recorded in the traditional scientific literature.
Dr. William W. Hay:
Dr. William W. Hay is a well-known marine scientist. He is Professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA. He was formerly the Dean of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. After a discussion with Professor Hay about the Quran’s mention of recently discovered facts on seas, he said:

“I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scriptures of the Holy Quran, and I have no way of knowing where they would come from, but I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and that this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages.”And when he was asked about the source of the Quran, he replied: “Well, I would think it must be the divine being.”
Professor Armstrong:
Armstrong works for NASA and is also professor of Astronomy, university of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Prof. Armstrong was asked a number of questions about Qur’an’s verses dealing with his field of specialization. He was eventually asked, "You have seen and discovered for yourself the true nature of modern Astronomy by means of modern equipment, rockets, and satellites developed by man. You have also seen how the same facts were mentioned by the Qur'an fourteen centuries ago. So what is your opinion?"
"That is a difficult question which I have been thinking about since our discussion here. I am impressed at how remarkably some of the ancient writings seem to correspond to modern and recent Astronomy. I am not a sufficient scholar of human history to project myself completely and reliably into the circumstances that 1400 years ago would have prevailed.
Certainly, I would like to leave it at that, that what we have seen is remarkable, it may or may not admit of scientific explanation, there may well have to be something beyond what we understand as ordinary human experience to account for the writings that we have seen."
Dr. Maurice Bucaille:
Born in 1920, former chief of the Surgical Clinic, University of Paris, has for a long time deeply interested in the correspondences between the teachings of the Holy Scriptures and modern secular knowledge.
After a study which lasted ten years, Dr. Maurice Bucaille addressed the French Academy of Medicine in 1976 concerning the existence in the Qur'an of certain statements concerning physiology and reproduction. His reason for doing that was that:

"...our knowledge of these disciplines is such, that it is impossible to explain how a text produced at the time of the Qur'an could have contained ideas that have only been discovered in modern times."

"The above observation makes the hypothesis advanced by those who see Muhammad as the author of the Qur'an untenable. How could a man, from being illiterate, become the most important author, in terms of literary merits, in the whole of Arabic literature?

How could he then pronounce truths of a scientific nature that no other human-being could possibly have developed at that time, and all this without once making the slightest error in his pronouncement on the subject?"
In the 7th century, when the Qur'an was revealed, Arab society had many superstitious and groundless beliefs where scientific issues were concerned. Lacking the technology to examine the universe and nature, these early Arabs believed in legends inherited from past generations. They supposed, for example, that mountains supported the sky above. They believed that the earth was flat and that there were high mountains at its both ends. It was thought that these mountains were pillars that kept the vault of heaven high above. However, all these superstitious beliefs of Arab society were eliminated with the Qur’an. In Sura Sad, verse 2, it was said:
"God is He who raised up the heavens without any support..."(The Qur'an, 38:2).
This verse invalidated the belief that the sky remains above because of the mountains. In many other subjects, important facts were revealed at a time when no one could have known them. The Qur'an, which was revealed at a time when people knew very little about astronomy, physics, or biology, contains key facts on a variety of subjects such as the creation of the universe, the creation of the human being, the structure of the atmosphere, and the delicate balances that make life on earth possible.
Following are some of these scientific truths and discoveries in the Qur'an which are proved with the time and advancement in science.
Quran and Medicine:
Quran is the book which not only guides man but also help man in various walks of life, even in providing him valuable information about benefits of the eatables. It also provides man with the knowledge of the healing power of the natural things available around man. Like honey has the healing power in it.
Honey has the healing properties:
The bee assimilates juices of various kinds of flowers and fruit and forms within its body the honey, which it stores in its cells of wax. Only a couple of centuries ago man came to know that honey comes from the belly of the bee. This fact was mentioned in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago in the following verse:
“There issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colors,
Wherein is healing for men.” [Al-Qur’an 16:69]
Man is now aware that honey has a healing property and also a mild antiseptic property. The Russians used honey to cover their wounds in World War II. The wound would retain moisture and would leave very little scar tissue. Due to the density of honey, no fungus or bacteria would grow in the wound. A person suffering from an allergy of a particular plant may be given honey from that plant so that the person develops resistance to that allergy. Honey is rich in fructose and vitamin K. Thus the knowledge contained in the Qur’an regarding honey, its origin and properties, was far ahead of the time it was revealed.
Allah the Almighty says;
(وأوحى ربك إلى النحل أن اتخذي من الجبال بيوتاً ومن الشجر، ومما يعرشون، ثم كلي من كل الثمرات فاسلكي سبل ربك ذللا ، يخرج من بطونها شراب مختلف ألوانه فيه شفاء للناس، إن في ذلك لآية لقوم يتفكرون) النحل 68
"Your Lord revealed to the bees: "Build dwellings in the mountains and the trees, and also in the structures which men erect. Then eat from every kind of fruit and travel the paths of your Lord, which have been made easy for you to follow." From inside them comes a drink of varying colors, containing healing for mankind. There is certainly a Sign in that for people who reflect" (16: 68).
Although honey is one of the most important products of the bee, yet it is not the only product. Honey wax, propolis, nectar, bee toxicant are cases in point of other products that proved by experimental science to be of medical benefits.
Honey has more than 80 materials of sugar vitamins and 15 materials of sugars, particularly fructose, glucose, minerals, amino acids and about 5% of unclassified materials.
“containing healing for mankind” is an explicit verse indicating that honey is a treatment as well as a nutrient.

Benefits of honey:

• Alleviating inflammation of cornea if used locally on the eye.
• An antibiotic if used locally in situ of wounds and burns, and it is used for healing of wounds.
• As honey does not accommodate bacteria, this bactericide (bacteria-killing) property of honey is named "the inhibition effect." There are various reasons of this anti-microbial property of the honey. Some examples are: the high sugar content that limits the amount of water microorganisms need for growth, its high acidity (low pH) and composition which deprive bacteria from nitrogen necessary for reproduction.
• Antioxidant: Everyone who wants to live a healthier life should consume antioxidants. Those are the components in cells that get rid of harmful byproducts of normal metabolic functions. These elements inhibit destructive chemical reactions that cause spoilage of food and many chronic illnesses. Researchers believe food products rich in antioxidants may prevent heart problems and cancer. Strong antioxidants are present in honey content: Pinocembrin, pinobaxin, chrisin and galagin. Pinocembrin is an antioxidant that merely exists in the honey.
• A treatment for gastric and duodenal ulcers, as honey decreases the secretion of hydrochloric acid to a normal rate, thus helping to heal such ulcers and alleviate the related pains and reduce resultant cases of vomiting and colic. For the treatment to be effective, honey should be taken dissolved in warm water one or two hours before meals.
• A treatment for involuntary urination at beds. Such a disease that could often be a result of psychic or neurotic cause. So, if the child is given one small spoon of honey before sleeping, this will have a positive effect, as honey is sedative for the nervous system, thus helping the cyst to relax and expand during sleep. Concentrated sugar also helps to absorb water from the child body.
• It supports blood formation: Honey provides an important part of the energy needed by the body for blood formation. In addition, it helps in cleansing the blood. It has some positive effects in regulating and facilitating blood circulation. It also functions as a protection against capillary problems and arteriosclerosis.
• A treatment for colds, flu and pharyngitis.
• A treatment for cases of chronic hepatitis, as honey increases the liver stock of the glycogen material through the increase of blood glucose, thus helping the liver to function properly and relieve it from more burdens.
• A treatment for insomnia and a sedative for nerves, as it contains some sedative and tonic substances as sodium and potassium at a reasonable rate such.
• A treatment for alcoholic poisoning. Honey is one of the main nutrients prescribed in hospitals and clinics of alcoholic addicts, as it protects the liver from alcoholic poisoning. Fructose and vitamin B group in the honey helps oxidize the alcohol remaining in the body.
• A treatment for cough.
• In cosmetics, a mixture of honey with lemon and glycerin is considered of the best old medical prescription for the treatment of skin cracking and roughness, the inflammation and wounds of lips, sun stroke, and dermal pigments. Many ointments and creams contain honey as a main element for the treatment of skin diseases.
• A treatment for muscular spasm of sportive exercises or facial spasms and eyelids muscles, which disappear after having one big spoon of honey for three days after each meal.

The Qur’an on Seas and Rivers:
“He has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier between them. They do not transgress.” (Qur’an 55:19-20)
Allah Almighty said an another ayah in Qur’an
“He is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made between them a barrier and a forbidding partition.” (Quran 25:53)
Barriers between various types of water found in nature: a fact mentioned in the Qur’an expounded by science.

Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density.
For example, Mediterranean Sea water is warm, saline, and less dense, compared to Atlantic ocean water. When Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill, it moves several hundred kilometers into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 meters with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics. The Mediterranean water stabilizes at this depth

The Mediterranean Sea water as it enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes between them. Temperatures are in degrees Celsius (C°).
Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier.
The Holy Qur’an mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. God has said:
But when the Qur’an speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of “a forbidding partition” with the barrier. God has said in the Qur’an:
One may ask, why did the Qur’an mention the partition when speaking about the divider between fresh and salt water, but did not mention it when speaking about the partition between the two seas?
Modern science has discovered that in estuaries, where fresh (sweet) and salt water meet, the situation is somewhat different from what is found in places where two seas meet. It has been discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity separating the two layers. This partition (zone of separation) has a different salinity from the fresh water and from the salt water

Longitudinal section showing salinity (parts per thousand) in an estuary. We can see here the partition (zone of separation) between the fresh and the salt water.
This information has been discovered only recently, using advanced equipment to measure temperature, salinity, density, oxygen dissolubility, etc. The human eye cannot see the difference between the two seas that meet, rather the two seas appear to us as one homogeneous sea. Likewise, the human eye cannot see the division of water in estuaries into the three kinds: fresh water, salt water, and the partition (zone of separation).
The Qur’an on Deep Sea and Internal Waves
Allah Almighty said in Qur’an:
“Or (the unbelievers’ state) is like the darkness in
a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which
are waves, above which are clouds. Darkness,
one above another. If a man stretches out his
hand, he cannot see it....”
(Qur’an 24:40)
Description: The Qur’anic account of life in the deep seas, the darkness therein, and how
it confirms modern scientific findings.
This verse mentions the darkness found in deep seas and oceans, where if a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it. The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth, there is almost no light (see figure 1). Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all. Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters without the aid of submarines or special equipment. Human beings cannot survive unaided in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters.

This figure shows that between 3 and 30 percent of the sunlight is reflected at the sea surface. Then almost all of the seven colors of the light spectrum are absorbed one after another in the first 200 meters, except the blue light
Scientists have recently discovered this darkness by means of special equipment and submarines that have enabled them to dive into the depths of the oceans.
We can also understand from the following sentences in the previous verse, “...in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds....”, that the deep waters of seas and oceans are covered by waves, and above these waves are other waves. It is clear that the second set of waves are the surface waves that we see, because the verse mentions that above the second waves there are clouds. But what about the first waves? Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities.”

Internal waves at interface between two layers of water of different densities. One is dense (the lower one), the other one is less dense (the upper one).
The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.
In one verse of the Qur'an, the "fecundating" characteristic of the winds, and the resulting formation of rain are mentioned.
And We send the fecundating winds, and then cause water to descend from the sky, therewith providing you with water in abundance. (Qur'an, 15:22)
This verse points out that the first stage in the formation of rain is wind. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the only relationship known between the wind and the rain was that it was the wind that drove the clouds. However, modern meteorological findings have demonstrated the "fecundating" role of the wind in the formation of rain.
As explained earlier, this fecundating function of the wind works in the following way:
On the surface of oceans and seas, a large number of air bubbles form because of the water's foaming action. The moment these bubbles burst, thousands of tiny particles, with a diameter of just one hundredth of a millimetre, are thrown up into the air. These particles, known as "aerosols," mix with dust carried from the land by the wind, and are carried to the upper layers of the atmosphere. These particles carried to higher altitudes by winds come into contact with water vapour up there. Water vapour condenses around these particles and turns into water droplets. These water droplets first come together and form clouds, and then fall to the Earth in the form of rain. As mentioned, winds "fecundate" the water vapour floating in the air with the particles they carry from the sea, and eventually help the formation of rain clouds.
If winds did not possess this property, water droplets in the upper atmosphere would never form, and there would be no rain.
The most important point to be recognized here is that this critical role of the wind in the formation of rain was stated centuries ago in the Qur'an, at a time when very little was known about natural phenomena…

The picture above shows the stages in the formation of a wave. Waves are formed by the wind blowing above the surface of the water. With the wind, water particles start to move in a circular motion. This movement soon forms waves, one after the other, and bubbles formed by the waves spread in the air. This is the first stage in the formation of rain. This process is declared in the verse as "We send the fecundating winds and then cause water to descend from the sky."

Further information provided in the verse about the fertilising quality of the wind is its role in the pollination of flowers. Many plants on Earth disperse their pollen by means of the wind in order to ensure the survival of their species. Several open-seeded plants, pine trees, palm and similar trees, seeded plants that produce flowers, and grass-like plants are entirely pollinated by the wind. The wind carries the pollen from the plants to others of the species, thus fertilising them.
Until recently, the way that the wind was able to fertilise plants was unknown. When it was realised, however, that plants are divided into males and females, the fertilising role of the wind was also discovered. This truth was already indicated in the Qur'an: "… [He] sent down water from the sky by which We have brought forth various different types of plants in pairs." (Qur'an, 20:53)

The Formation of Rain:
How rain forms remained a great mystery for a long time. Only after weather radar was invented was it possible to discover the stages by which rain is formed. According to this, the formation of rain takes place in three stages. First, the "raw material" of rain rises up into the air with the wind. Later, clouds are formed, and finally raindrops appear. The Qur'an's account of the formation of rain refers exactly to this process. In one verse, this formation is described in this way:
It is God Who sends the winds which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark clumps and you see the rain come pouring out from the middle of them. When He makes it fall on those of His slaves He wills, they rejoice
(The Qur'an, 30:48)

Now, let us examine these three stages outlined in the verse more technically.
“It is God Who sends the winds..."Countless air bubbles formed by the foaming of the oceans continuously burst and cause water particles to be ejected towards the sky. These particles, which are rich in salt, are then carried away by winds and rise upward in the atmosphere. These particles, which are called aerosols, function as water traps, and form cloud drops by collecting around the water vapors themselves, which rises from the seas as tiny droplets.
".... Which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark clumps..."The clouds are formed from water vapors that condenses around the salt crystals or dust particles in the air. Because the water droplets in these clouds are very small (with a diameter between 0.01 and 0.02 mm), the clouds are suspended in the air, and spread across the sky. Thus, the sky is covered in clouds.

"And you see the rain come pouring our from the
Middle of them"
The water particles that surround salt crystals and dust particles thicken and form raindrops, so, drops that become heavier than the air leave the clouds and start to fall to the ground as rain.
As we have seen, every stage in the formation of rain is related in the verses of the Qur'an. Furthermore, these stages are explained in exactly the right sequence. Just as with many other natural phenomena on the Earth, God gives the most correct explanation of this phenomenon as well, and made it known to people in the Qur'an centuries before it was discovered. In another verse, the following information is given about the formation of rain:
The above illustration shows the water droplets being released into the air. This is the first stage in the formation of rain. After that, the water droplets in the newly formed clouds will be suspended in the air and then condense to form rain. All of these stages are related in the Qur'an.
Scientists studying cloud types came across surprising results regarding the formation of rain clouds. Rain clouds are formed and shaped according to definite systems and stages.

Cosmology is the study of the Universe and its components, how it formed, how it has evolved and what its future is. Modern cosmology grew from ideas before recorded history. Ancient man asked questions such as "What's going on around me?" which then developed into "How does the Universe work?", the key question that cosmology asks.
To religious studies, cosmology is about a theistically created world ruled by supernatural forces. To scientists, cosmology is about a world of controlled observations elucidated by natural forces. We will primarily explore the latter type of cosmology in this course.
Many of the earliest recorded scientific observations were about cosmology, and pursue of understanding has continued for over 5000 years. Cosmology has exploded in the last 10 years with radically new information about the structure, origin and evolution of the Universe obtained through recent technological advances in telescopes and space observatories and basically has become a search for the understanding of not only what makes up the Universe (the objects within it) but also its overall architecture.
Modern cosmology has accumulated massive evidence, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, that the universe began with a huge explosion known as the Big Bang. This occurred approximately 13.7 billion years ago. Starting from a singularity with zero volume and tremendous mass, the universe was born. Not only was matter ejected into space, but space itself originated with the Big Bang.
The Quran and Cosmology
At the time the Holy Quran was revealed, the human understanding of the nature of the cosmos and the movement or the stillness of the heavenly bodies was extremely primitive and obscure. This is no longer the case, as our knowledge of the universe has considerably advanced and expanded by the present age.
Some of the theories relating to the creation of the universe have been verified as facts, whereas some others are still being explored. The concept of the expanding universe belongs to the former category, and has been universally accepted by the scientific community as 'fact'. This discovery was first made by Edwin Hubble in the 1920s. Yet some thirteen centuries before this, it was clearly mentioned in the Quran:

And the heaven We built with Our own powers (aydin) and indeed We go on expanding it (museum).
It should be remembered that the concept of the continuous expansion of the universe is exclusive to the Quran. No other Divine scriptures even remotely hint at it. The discovery that the universe is constantly expanding is of prime significance to scientists, because it helps create a better understanding of how the universe was initially created. It clearly explains the stage by stage process of creation, in a manner which perfectly falls into step with the theory of the Big Bang. The Quran goes further and describes the entire cycle of the beginning, the end and the return again to a similar beginning. The first step of creation as related in the Quran accurately describes the event of the Big Bang in the following words:

Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were a closed-up mass (ratqan), then we clove them asunder (fataqna)? And We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?
It is significant that this verse is specifically addressed to non-believers, implying perhaps, that the unveiling of the secret mentioned in this verse would be made by the non-believers, a sign for them of the truth of the Quran.
In this verse the words ratqan (closed-up mass), and fataqna (We clove them asunder), carry the basic message of the whole verse. Authentic Arabic lexicons3 give two meanings of ratqan that have great relevance to the topic under discussion. One meaning is 'the coming together of something and the consequent infusion into a single entity' and the second meaning is 'total darkness'. Both these meanings are significantly applicable. Taken together, they offer an apt description of the singularity of a black hole.
The Quran further claims that God Almighty has created the universe originally from nothingness. The method used by Him for the creation is that He commands, and the thing is there instantly and comprehensively. The Quran says:
“when He wills a thing He has only to say ‘Be’ and it is”.
And further:
“It is He who gives you life and death. When He creates a thing He has only to say ‘Be’ and it is”.
According to certain beliefs, the creation of the entire universe and all that there is in t, was conceived and accomplished in one step and instantly. The Quranic view, however, is that the creation of the universe was achieved in different stages and in different spans of time possibly through the process of creative evolution. The Quran conforms this:
“Surely your Lord is Allah Almighty who created the Heavens and Earth in six spans of time.”
The next stage possibly was to separate the heavens and earth, which were joined together as an integrated mass immediately after creation. The Quran proclaims:
“The Heavens and the Earth were joined together before we clove them asunder”.
Once the heavens and earth became separate entities, He commanded them to come together in cosmic relationship with each other and they did as mentioned in the Quran:
“Then He turned to the Heavens and it was all smoke and then He said to it and to the earth come you together willingly or unwillingly. They said we come willingly.”
“Then He completed them as seven firmaments in two days and then assigned to each Heavens its functions and command. And He adorned the lower Heaven with light and provides it with guard.”
The remaining four days or spans of time were devoted to Earth for providing within it facilities, succor, nourishment and order for making it hospitable for the humanity which was to come later. The physical laws of the governance of the heavenly bodies were also determined to bring out a unified system. The Quran says:
“He set on Earth farm hills and measured these in all things to give them nourishment in due proportion in four days in accordance with the (needs of) those who seek sustenance.”
This is how the universe was created and put into operation and is continuing on till today.
While the Quran has explained clearly the process of creation of the universe out of nothingness, it has also pointedly reported the eventual extinction of the universe and its return back to nothingness, i.e., from the ‘Big Bang’ to “Big Crunch’ as the scientist and cosmologist call it. The Quran says that the universe is continuously expanding:
“The Heavens we have built with power, verily We expanding them.”
{Confirming this fact, the scientists have indicating that when the universe reaches its limits of expansion, it will start slowing down to zero at some point of time, and a new phase of recondensation will start and the overwhelming density of matter and energy will have the contracting effect ant the universe will collapse back into the same primeval ball due to immense gravitational forces and return to the singular point from where it started, i.e., nothingness.}
The Quran also indicates that there is no doubt that the present creation will be reverted back and a new creation brought in its place:
“He can take you away if He pleased and bring a new creation in your place. This is not difficult for the God Almighty.”
There are several other verses in the Quran which describes the scenario of the end of the present universe:
“The day (on which) the sky will be like the molten brass and the mountains will be like tufts of (corded) wool.”
This day is also referred to in Quran as the “Day of Resurrection”.
The existing universe was conceived and created by God Almighty from nothingness with a
Primeval action of creating a single dimensionless point when there was absolutely no time and space. The beautiful universe, according to the Quran, has also to come to an end when everything will be rolled up and the universe will completely collapse and fate away and reach a point when he started. It will revert to nothingness. This is the promise of God Almighty and the end is sure to come.
From this it can be concluded that Quranic injunction and statements with regard to the creation of universe have no quarrel with science. They are beautiful agreement with scientific data presently available. Science has neither negated nor denied any of these Quranic assertions.
The Functions of Mountains:

The Qur'an draws attention to a very important geological function of mountains.

We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth,
so it would not move under themÉã
(The Qur'an, 21:31)
Mountains, like pegs, have deep roots embedded in the ground. (Anatomy of the
Earth, Cailleux, p.220)
Another illustration shows how mountains are peg like in shape, due to their deep roots.
(Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens,p.158)
As we have noticed, it is stated in the verse that mountains have the function of preventing shocks in the Earth. This fact was not known by anyone at the time the Qur'an was revealed.
It was in fact brought to light only recently as a result of the findings of modern Geology. According to these findings, mountains emerge as a result of the movements and collisions of massive plates forming the Earth's crust. When two plates collide, the stronger one slides under the other, the one on the top bends and forms heights and mountains. The layer beneath proceeds under the ground and makes a deep extension downward. That means that mountains have a portion stretching downwards, as large as their visible parts on the Earth. In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows: With extensions that mountains extend out towards under the ground as well as over the ground, they clench different plates of the earth together like a peg. The Earth's crust consists of plates that are in constant motion. This clenching property of mountains prevents shocks to a great extent, by fixing the earth's crust, which has a very movable structure. Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeper into the mantle.4
In a verse, this role of the mountains is pointed out by a comparison with "pegs":

Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs
(The Qur'an, 78:6-7)
Mountains, in other words, clench the plates in the Earth's crust together by extending above and beneath the Earth's surface at the conjunction points of these plates. In this way, they fix the Earth's crust, and prevent it from drifting over the magma stratum or among its plates. Briefly, we may liken mountains to nails that keep pieces of wood together. This fixing function of the mountains is described in scientific literature by the term "isostasy". Isostasy means the following: Isostasy: general equilibrium in the Earth's crust maintained by a yielding flow of rock material beneath the surface under gravitational stress. This vital role of mountains, which was discovered by modern geology and Seismic research, was revealed in the Qur'an centuries ago as an example of the supreme wisdom in God's creation.

We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth,
So it would not move under them
(The Qur'an, 21:31)
In one verse, we are informed that mountains are not motionless as they seem, but are in constant motion.
You will see the mountains you reckonedto be solid going past like clouds.
(The Qur'an, 27:88)
This motion of the mountains is caused by the movement of the Earth's crust that they are located on. The Earth's crust 'floats' over the mantle layer, which is denser. It was at the beginning of the 20th century when, for the first time in history, a German scientist by the name of Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents of the earth had been attached together when it first formed, but then drifted in different directions, and thus separated as they moved away from each other. Geologists understood that that Wegener was right only in the 1980s, 50 years after his death. As Wegener pointed out in an article published in 1915, the land masses on the earth were joined together about 500 million years ago. As Wegener pointed out in a 1915 article, the land masses of the earth were joined together some 500 million years ago, and this large mass, called Pangaea, was located in the South Pole. Approximately 180 million years ago, Pangaea divided into two parts, which drifted in different directions. One of these giant continents was Gondwana, which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. The second one was Laurasia, which included Europe, North America and Asia, except for India. Over the next 150 million years following this separation, Gondwana and Laurasia divided into smaller parts.
These continents that emerged after the split of Pangaea have been constantly moving on the Earth's surface at several centimeters per year, in the meantime changing the sea and land ratios of the Earth. Discovered as a result of the geological research carried out at the beginning of the 20th century, this movement of the Earth's crust is explained by scientists as follows:
The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle, with a thickness of about 100 kms are divided into segments called plates. There are six major plates, and several small ones. According to the theory called plate tectonics, these plates move about on Earth, carrying continents and ocean floor with them. Continental motion has been measured at from 1-5 cm per year. As the plates continue to move about, this will produce a slow change in Earth's geography. Each year, for instance, the Atlantic Ocean becomes slightly wider. There is a very important point to be stated here: God has referred to the motion of mountains as a drifting action in the verse. Today, modern scientists also use the term "Continental Drift" for this motion. Unquestionably, it is one of the miracles of the Qur'an that this scientific fact, which has recently been discovered by science, was announced in the Qur'an.

The Creation of Mankind

The culminating stage of the creation was the creation of man by the Lord Almighty, the all-knowing and powerful. Like the universe the man was also created for a purpose. According to Qur’an, man is the most favoured creation of Allah (swt), superior to all living creatures in the cosmos including the angles and the Djins. He is gifted with divine qualities, which puts him at the apex of all creation.

“And God has created every animal from water, of them there are some that creep on their bellies, some that walk on two legs and some that on four. God has powers over all things. (24:25)

The Theory of Evolution

It has been clearly established that both Qur’an and Science support the basic concept of evolution from the non-living state to the living state. According to science, man is presently at the pinnacle of the evolutionary process which originally started with the cooling effect of big bang. It had a long journey in space and finally landing on the earth where it started lacking shape. Life was created in the biosphere most probably through the interaction of certain inorganic materials between themselves. Other factors suggested for the possible creation of life on earth is, chance, accident, necessity and environmental pressure. But to assume divine hand in creating life has been constantly and continuously denied by science. A number of theories were propounded to explain the existence of life but most of these proved untenable and unconvincing. According to Qur’an, all life has originated from water. Science also endorses this view.

Modern Theory of Evolution

The modern theory of evolution places man in the same category of lemurs, tarsier, and monkeys and apes because they have number of common anatomical features between them. It has been observed that “modern primates comprise a remarkable gradational series culminating in great apes and the humans. Human and apes resemble each other in many anatomical features, including their skeletons and skulls, internal organs and brain structure.

Darwin's Theory of Evolution - Natural Selection
While Darwin's Theory of Evolution is a relatively young archetype; the evolutionary worldview itself is as old as antiquity. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Anaximander postulated the development of life from non-life and the evolutionary descent of man from animal. Charles Darwin simply brought something new to the old philosophy -- a plausible mechanism called "natural selection." Natural selection acts to preserve and accumulate minor advantageous genetic mutations. Suppose a member of a species developed a functional advantage (it grew wings and learned to fly). Its offspring would inherit that advantage and pass it on to their offspring. The inferior (disadvantaged) members of the same species would gradually die out, leaving only the superior (advantaged) members of the species. Natural selection is the preservation of a functional advantage that enables a species to compete better in the wild. Natural selection is the naturalistic equivalent to domestic breeding. Over the centuries, human breeders have produced dramatic changes in domestic animal populations by selecting individuals to breed. Breeders eliminate undesirable traits gradually over time. Similarly, natural selection eliminates inferior species gradually over time.

Theory of Darwin

Charles Darwin in his book “Origin of species” suggested the theory for natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle of life.
He played with the idea of the survival of fittest with greater enthusiasm emphasis. He thought plants or animals that contained defect or infirmity would disappear and the stronger and the more able would survive and possibly develop to the next evolutionary stage. Darwin’s observations were more sociological and ideological in nature rather than scientific. Therefore they found favor with people of a theistic communist, or non religious tendencies and as well as the community of scientist who were at the time on war path with orthodox religious scholars. The scientific content of Darwin’s theory was very week and could not hold for long. It was a demolished very early as soon as it was found that his concepts were fragile and his ideas outmoded.

Darwin’s still has many supports to his theory and this is perhaps more due to non scientific reasons. It is the ideological appeal of his theory that has gained popularity. Darwin looked obsessed with his ideas of “natural selection”. In a letter to Thomas Thorton in 1861, Darwin writes admitting his inability to explain the process of evolution with certainty. He says in the letter that “But I believe in natural selection not because, I can prove it in any single case, that it has changed one species into another, but because it groups and explain well a host of facts in classification, embryology, morphology, rudimentary organs, geological succession and distribution”. Therefore the actual validity of Darwin’s theory that natural selection is the basis of evolution cannot hold any ground and can only be taken as history.

From the fore gong discussion it can easily be concluded that the ongoing theory of human evolution is based on fragile, fragmentary and confusing evidence. There are many missing links and enough evidence is not available to confirm the claims regarding to origin of man convincingly. In this connection following points required some thoughtful consideration.

Statements in Qur’an about Human Reproduction

The Qur’an has categorically stated that the man and his partner women were created from small quantity of the sperm that was poured out. This statement is repeated in the Qur’an eleven times. The small quantity of liquid may be likened to a drop of water or a trickle of the liquid.

The Qur’an says at different places:

“God fashioned man from a small quantity (of sperm)”. (16:4)

“Was man not a small quantity of sperm which has been poured out”. (75:37)

The Qur’an further states that:

“From the small quantity of liquid God fashioned him (in due proportions) and ordained his fate”. (80:19)

This verse is very significant. It is in striking conformity with science says. It is at this stage of the reproduction that genetic inheritance from the father is determined, and whether the child is going to be a male or female, is decided.

The Qur’an further declares:

“Verily we fashioned man from a small quantity of mingled liquids on order to test him and try him; then gave him hearing and sight”. (76:2)

This is an important concept that the said liquid was mingled and mixed. This is a reference to the spermatic liquid which is known to be composed of the secretions from testicles, the seminal vesicles, the prostrate and the glands attached to urinary tract. The reference cannot be possibly to female secretions as it is now known that they do not participate in reproduction.

The Qur’an also says that:

“Was man not a small quantity of sperm which has been poured out? After that he was something which clings; then God fashioned him in due proportion and harmoniously”. (75:37-38)

It is well known that after fertilization the tiny embryo virtually clings itself to the wall of uterus on about the sixth day of fertilization.

The Qur’an further speaks of development of the embryo and its transformation as follows:

“We fashioned the things which clings into a lump of chewed flesh and then we fashioned the chewed flesh into bones and we clothed the bones with intact flesh”. (23:14)

The two types of flesh mentioned in the Qur’an are the Murdat and Lahm in Arabic. The chewed flesh is a very soft flesh which is not fully developed whereas the intact flesh is the normal flesh, the muscles. The clinged embryo as we know starts taking human form in about 20 days and is called feotus.

Further development of the human organs is also indicated in the Qur’an:

“God appointed for you the sense of hearing, sight and the viscera”. (32:9)

Thus there is a striking similarity between the Qur’anic statements and what science has to say in this connection. It may be interesting to note that Qur’an was revealed fourteen hundred years ago and the modern science started around the seventeenth century, about 1000 years before the Qur’an was revealed. No human being at the time could have known about the full details of reproduction and the transformation of man within the mother’s embryo. Therefore, the truth of Qur’anic statements as divine revelation cannot be denied.

Scientific research and Quranic verses about human birth

A Drop of Semen

During sexual intercourse, 250 million sperms are emitted from the male at a time. The sperms undertake an arduous journey in the mother’s body until they make it to the ovum. Only a thousand out of 250 million sperms succeed in reaching the ovum. At the end of this five minute race, the ovum, half the size of organ, of salt, will let only one of the sperms in. That is, the essence of man not the whole semen, but only a small part of it. This is explained in the Quran.

“Does man reckon he will be left uncontrolled (without purpose)? Was he not once a drop of ejected semen?” (75:36-37)

As we have seen the Quran informs us that man is made not from the entire semen, but only a small part of it. That the particularly emphasis in this statement announces a fact only discovered by modern science is evidence that the statement is divine in origin.

The mixture in the Semen

The fluid called semen, which contains the sperms, does not consist of sperm alone. One the contrary, it is made up of a mixture of different fluids. These fluids have different functions, neutralizing the acids at the entrance of the uterus, and creating a slippery environment for the easy movement of the sperms. Interestingly enough, when semen is mention in the Quran, this fact which was discovered by modern science, is also referred to, and semen is defined as a mixed fluid.
“WE created man from a mingled drop to test him, and We made him hearing and seeing.” (76:2)

The Sex of the Baby

Until fairly recently, it was thought that a baby’s sex was determined by the mother’s cells. Or at least, it was believed that the sex was determined by the male and female cells together. But we are given different information in the Quran, Where it is stated that masculinity or femininity is created out of “a drop of semen which has been ejected.”

“He has created both sexes, male and female drop of semen which has been ejected.” (The Quran 53:45-46)
The developing discipline of genetics and molecular biology has scientifically validated the accuracy of this information given by the Quran. It is now understood that sex is determined by the sperm cells from the male, and that the female has no role in this process. Chromosomes are the main elements in the determining sex. Two of the 46 chromosomes the determined the structure of a human being are identified as sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are called “XY” in males. And “XX” in females, because the shapes of the chromosomes resemble these leters.The Y chromosome carries the genes that code for masculinity, while the X chromosome caries the genes that code for femininity. The formation of a new human being begins with the cross combination of one of these chromosomes, which exist in males and females in pairs. In females, both components of the sex cell, this divides into two during ovulation, carry X chromosomes. The sex cell of a male, on the other hand, produces two different kinds of a sperm, one that contains X chromosomes and the other Y chromosomes. If an X chromosome from the female unites with a sperm that contains an X chromosome, then the baby is female. If it unites with the sperm that contain Y chromosome, the baby is male. In other word the baby sex is determined by which chromosomes from the male units with the female’s ovum. None of this was known until the discovery of genetic in the 20th century. Indeed, in many cultures, it was believed that a baby sex was determined by the female’s body. That was why women were blamed when they gave birth to girls.

The Clot Clinging to the Uterus

If we keep on examining the facts announced to us in the Quran about the formation of human being, we again encounter some very important scientific miracles .When the sperms of the male unites with the ovum of the female, the essence of the baby to be born is formed. This single cell, known as a “Zygote” in biology. Will instantly start to reproduce by dividing, and eventually become a “peace of flesh” called an embryo. This of course can only be seen by human beings with the aid of microscope. The embryo does not spend its developmental period in a void. It clings to the uterus just like roots that are firmly fixed to the earth by there tendrils. Through this bond, the embryo can obtain the substances essential to its development from the mother’s body. Here, at this point, a very significant miracle of the Quran is reveled .while referring to the embryo developing in the mother’s womb, God uses the word “alaq” in the Quran;

“Recite: In the name of your Lord who created man from alaq. Recite: And your Lord is the most generous” (The Quran, 96:1-3)

The meaning of the word “alaq” in Arabic is “a thing that clings to some place”. The word is literally used to describe leeches that cling to a body to suck blood. Certainly, the use of such an appropriate word for the embryo developing in the mother’s womb proves one again that Quran is a revelation from God, the Lord of the entire world.

The wrapping of the muscles over the bones

Another important aspect of the information given in the verses of the Quran is the developmental stages of a human being in the mother’s womb. It is stated in the verse that
in the mother’s womb, the bones develop first, and then the muscles form which wrap around them.

“(We) then formed the drop into a clot and formed the clot into a lump and formed the lump into bones and clothe the bones in flesh; and then brought him into being as another creature. Blessed be God. The Best of Creators!” (The Quran, 23:14)

Embryology is the branch of science that studies the development of the embryo in the mother’s womb. Until very recently, embryologists assumed that the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at same time. For this reason .for a long time, some people claimed that the verses conflicted with science. Yet advanced microscope research conducted by the virtue of new technological developments has reveled the revelation of the Quran is word for word correct. These observations at the microscope level showed that the development inside the mother’s womb takes place in just the way; it is described in the verses. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies. Then muscular cells that are selected from amongst the tissues around the bones come together and wrap around the bones. This event is described in a scientific publication titled
Developing Human in the Following words:
During the seventh week, the skeleton begins to spread throughout the body and the bones take their familiar shapes. At the end of the seventh week and during the eighth week the muscles take their positions around the bone forms.
In short, man’s developmental stages as described in the Quran are in the perfect harmony with the findings of the modern embryology.
Three Stages of the Baby in the Womb

In the Quran it is related that the man is created in three-stage process in the mother’s womb.

“…..He creates you by stage in your mother’s wombs in three fold darkness. That is God, your Lord. Sovereignty is His. There is no god but Him. So what has made you deviate?” (The Quran, 39:6)

These phases refer to the different developmental stages of a baby. In brief, the main characteristics of these developmental stages are as follows:
-Pre-embryonic stage
In this first phase, the zygote grows by division, and when it becomes a cell cluster, it buries itself in the wall of the uterus. While they continue growing, the cells organize themselves in three layers.
-Embryonic stage
The second phase lasts for five and a half weeks, during which the baby is called an “embryo”. In this stage, the basic organs and system of he body start to appear from the cell layers.
-Fetal stage
From this stage on, the embryo is called a “fetus”. This phase begins at the eighth week of gestation and lasts until the movement of the birth. The distinctive characteristics of this stage are that the fetus looks just like a human being, with its face, hands and feet. Although it is only 3cm.long initially, all of its organs become apparent. This phase lasts for about thirty weeks, and development continues until the week of delivery. Information on the development in the mother’s womb became available only after observations with moderns devices. Yet, just like many other scientific facts, these pieces of information are imported in the verses of the Quran in a miraculous way. The fact that such detail and accurate information was given in the Quran at a time when people had scare information on medical matters is clear evidence that the Quran is not the word of man, but the word of the God.

Mother’s Milk

Mother’s milk is an unmatched mixture that is created by God as both an excellent food-source for the new born baby, and a substance that increases its resistance to diseases. Even artificial baby food produce by today’s technology can not substitute for this miraculous source of nutrition. Every day, a new benefit of mother’s milk to the baby is discovered. One of the facts that science has discovered about mother milk is that suckling up to 2 years after birth is very beneficial. God gives us this important information, which was discovered by science only very recently, with the verse “….his weaning was in 2 years…” 14th centuries ago.

“And we have en joined upon man goodness towards his parents: his mother bore him by bearing strain upon strain, and his weaning was in two years: (hence, O man,) be great full to Me and to your parents; to Me is the eventual coming.” (The Quran, 31:14)

Vibration and Earth
There are two Ayat, with almost the same words, that relate the earth to rain and oscillation. Translations and commentaries of the Quran do not exactly explain this relationship. However, we will attempt to explore this link. The following argument may shed some light on the exact meaning of this relationship. And Allah knows the best.
Vibrations occur regularly in our surroundings. These are motions that repeat themselves. There are oscillating guitar strings, bells, diaphragms in telephones and speaker systems, and quartz crystals in wristwatches. Less obvious are the oscillations of the molecules of the air that transmit the sensation of sound, of the atoms in a solid that convey the sensation of temperature and of the electrons in the antenna of radio and TV transmitters.
Vibration is divided into free and forced vibration. A person swinging in a swing without any other help is an example of free vibration. If a friend keeps on pulling or pushing the swing periodically, we have a forced vibration. Free vibration happens if the friend pulls or pushes once and then the swing is left to oscillate freely.
One important property of oscillatory motion is its natural frequency, or the number of oscillations that are completed in one second. Any system has one or more natural frequencies of vibration depending upon its mass and how stiff it is. Resonance happens when a system is excited at one of its natural frequencies. The amplification of the sound from a radio is a case of resonance. When you move the station selector to get a certain station, you are actually bringing the frequency of the circuit in the radio in balance with the signal frequency of the selected station. When that happens, you get the maximum amplification of the sound. When you move the station selector, i.e. changing the circuit frequency from the input frequency, the sound decreases and then disappear.
Allah defined precisely this case of forced vibration where an input with driving frequency causes plants to grow as follows:
Surah 22, Ayah 5 "...And (further) you see the earth barren and lifeless, but when We pour down rain on it, it is stirred (to life), (oscillates), it swells, And it puts forth every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)."
Surah 41, Ayah 39 "And among His Signs in this: thou seest the earth barren and desolate; but when We send down rain to it, it is stirred to life (oscillates) and yields increase. Truly, He Who gives life to the (dead) earth can surely give life to (men) who are dead. For He has power over all things."
The existing translation refers to the Arabic word "oscillate" as "it is stirred" which does not reflect the actual Arabic word. A possible explanation of the above phenomenon is that when rain drops on the dead ground, it oscillates and grows. If there are seeds in the ground, rain causes them to grow or germinate. The exact mechanism of the effect of rain on germination may not be fully understood. However, this may be left to specialists in the field of botany to examine from the point of view of vibration.
Regardless of discovering the exact mechanism of the above phenomenon, the above Ayat clearly describe a case of vibration. Understanding this phenomenon of vibration is undoubtedly a knowledge that was not available in the seventh century, and may not be fully understood in our present time. No one can claim that Muhammad was a master dynamist and knew about vibration. Where did he get this information? It is from the Master and Only Creator of vibration.
The Relativity of the Time

There is absolutely no ambiguity whatsoever in the Biblical description of the Creation in six days followed by a day of rest, the Sabbath, analogous to the days of the earthly week. This clearly shows the interjection of human concepts to a divine action. The word "day", in the Bible, means the interval of time between two successive sunrises or sunsets for an inhabitant of the earth. When defined this way, the day is conditioned to the rotation of the earth on its own axis. It is obvious that, logically speaking, there can be no such definition of "days" as explained in the Bible, if the mechanism that caused them to appear - the existence of the earth and the sun - had not already been created.
On the other hand, we read in the Quran in many Ayat, the Creation process in six days without any analogy to the earthly days. To understand what the Quran means by a day, one should put all the verses in which the word "day" is mentioned and then attempt to extract a common meaning.
Surah 7, Ayah 54 "Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days"
Surah 32, Ayah 5 "He directs the affairs from heavens to the earth; then it ascends unto Him on a day, the measure of which is (as) a thousand years of your reckoning"
Surah 70, Ayah 4 "The angels and the Spirit (Gabriel) ascend unto Him in a day, the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years"
How could the immense mystery of time be enforced in our minds better than that? A day in the standard of Allah may be one day, or 1,000 years, or 50,000 years, depending on the event, relative to the human standard of time!
According to the theory of relativity, the time change of a fast moving object is very real and has nothing to do with any mechanical change that takes place in a clock because of its motion. An example to understand this time change is to imagine an astronaut traveling in space at a speed close to the speed of light. It would appear to him that he traveled an incredibly large distance in a very short time. On his return back to earth, he would find that thousands of earthly years had passed, and many generations had been born and died during this time expansion, while he might still be middle aged!
The relativity theory postulates that the maximum speed attainable is that of the speed of light. But who would say that this is really a fact that can be applied on all conditions? What if the speed of light represents a singularity or a barrier between two classes of realities? Our physical reality goes from zero speed to the speed of light. And beyond this barrier, there may be another reality that has speed range from the speed of light to, perhaps, a much faster speed.
During a dream one can travel enormous distances in a very short period of time, may be at a speed faster than the speed of light. So the above Ayat describe that on a spiritual level something that takes one day, according to the Divine Standard, could take a thousand or fifty thousands years according to the human standard. Therefore, the day in the Quran signifies a period of time and may not be equal to the earthly 24 hours. Modern commentators of the Quran, such as Yusuf Ali (1934) stressed the importance of taking the word "day" to mean in reality "very long period, or Ages, or Eons."
How were the different events in the Quran described in different time frames? Who told Muhammad that time has a relativistic property? It is the Creator of time itself.
سُوۡرَةُ الانشقاق
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
وَٱلۡقَمَرِ إِذَا ٱتَّسَقَ (١٨) لَتَرۡكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ۬ (١٩) فَمَا لَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (٢٠)
Al-Inshiqaq 84:18-20
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
And [I swear by] the moon when it is full, you will mount up stage by stage! What is the matter with them, that they have no faith?

After swearing by the Moon, in the above verses Allah said that people will mount up stage by stage. The term tarkabunna comes from the verb rakiba, (to mount, walk on a path, follow, embark upon, set about, participate, or rule). In the light of these meanings, it is very likely that the expression "you will mount up stage by stage" refers to a spacecraft to be boarded.
سُوۡرَةُ یُوسُف
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم
وَڪَأَيِّن مِّنۡ ءَايَةٍ۬ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ يَمُرُّونَ عَلَيۡہَا وَهُمۡ عَنۡہَا مُعۡرِضُونَ (١٠٥) وَمَا يُؤۡمِنُ أَڪۡثَرُهُم بِٱللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشۡرِكُونَ (١٠٦)
Yusuf 12:105-106
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
How many a portent is there in the heavens and the earth which they pass by with face averted! (105) And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners (unto Him). (106)

Indeed, the astronauts' spacecraft pass through each layer of the atmosphere one by one, and then begin to pass through the Moon's gravitational field. Thus, the Moon is reached by moving through individual layers. In addition, the swearing by the Moon in Surat al-Inshiqaq 18 further strengthens this emphasis, meaning that the verse may well be a sign that humanity will travel to the Moon. (Allah knows best.
سُوۡرَةُ الاٴنبیَاء
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
وَلِسُلَيۡمَـٰنَ ٱلرِّيحَ عَاصِفَةً۬ تَجۡرِى بِأَمۡرِهِۦۤ إِلَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ ٱلَّتِى بَـٰرَكۡنَا فِيہَا‌ۚ وَڪُنَّا بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَـٰلِمِينَ (٨١)
Al-Anbiya 21:81
e name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
And to Sulayman We gave the fiercely blowing wind, speeding at his command toward the land that We had blessed. And We had full knowledge of everything.
As the above verses relates, Allah placed the wind under Prophet Sulayman's (as) command and allowed him to use it as a vehicle. There is a strong possibility of an indication here that, as in Prophet Sulayman's (as) time, wind energy will also be used in the technology of the future.
The expression "a month's journey in the morning and a month in the afternoon" may be drawing attention to the fact that Prophet Sulayman (as) travel swiftly between different regions perhaps by using a technology similar to modern airplane, or developed wind-powered vehicles that could cover long distances quickly. (Allah knows best.) There is thus a strong possibility that above verses point to modern airplane technology and wind energy.
The Seas Not Mingling With One Another
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ يَلۡتَقِيَانِ (١٩) بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخٌ۬ لَّا يَبۡغِيَانِ (٢٠)
Ar-Rahman 55:19-20
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
He has let loose the two seas, converging together, with a barrier between them they do not break through. This property of the seas, that they meet and yet do not intermix, has only very recently been discovered by oceanographers. Because of the physical force called "surface tension," the waters of neighboring seas do not mix. Caused by the difference in the density of their waters, surface tension prevents them from mingling with one another, just as if a thin wall were between them.
It is interesting that, during a period when there was little knowledge of physics, and of surface tension, or oceanography, this truth was revealed in the Quran.
These are some verses which tell us about the physics. And Allah told us all these things before the invention of science.

In order to understand the scientific miracle of the Qur’an, we must first take a look at the level of science at the time when this holy book was revealed. In 7th century when Qur’an was revealed, Arab society had many superstitious and groundless beliefs where scientific issues were concerned. They supposed, for example, that the mountains supported the sky above. They believed that the earth was flat and that there were high mountains at its both ends. It was thought that these mountains were pillars that kept the vault of heaven high above.

However all these superstitious beliefs of Arabs society were eliminated with the Qur,an.In sura Sad, verse 2,it was said:”God is He who raised up the heavens without any support…’’ This verse invalidated the belief that the sky remains above because of the mountains. In many other subjects, important facts were revealed at a time when no one could have known them. The Qur’an, which was revealed at a time when people knew very little about astronomy,physics,or biology, contains key facts on a variety of subjects such as the creation of the universe,the creation of humanbeings,the structure of the atmosphere,.
Now, let us look at some of these scientific miracles related to astronomy, heavenly bodies and coming of the universe into existence.
Miracles and scientific point of view regarding origin of the universe.
The origin of the universe is described in the Qur’an in the following verse:
“He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth”.
This information given in the Qur’an is in full agreement with the findings of contemporary science. The conclusion that astrophysics has reached today is that the entire universe, together with the dimensions of matter and time, came into existence as a result of a great explosion that occurred in no time. This event is known as “The Big Bang “proved that the universe was created from nothingness as the result of the explosion of a single point. Modern scientific circles are in agreement that the Bing Bong is the only rational and provable explanation of the beginning of the universe and of how the universe came into being.

Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as matter. From a condition of non-existence in which neither matter, nor energy, nor even time existed, and which can only be described metaphysically,matter,energy,and time were all created. This fact, only recently discovered by modern physics, was announced to us in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.
The Expansion of the universe regarding with science of Astronomy.

Quranic view: In the Qur’an, which was revealed 14 centuries ago at a time when the science of astronomy was still primitive, the expansion of the universe was described like this:
“And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it.”

The word “Heaven”, as stated in this verse, is used in various places in the Qur’an with the meaning of space and universe. Here again, the word is used with this meaning. In other words, in the Qur’an it is revealed that the universe “expands”. And this is the very conclusion that science has reached today.
Scientific View: Until the dawn of the 20th century, the only view prevailing in the world of science was that “the universe “has a constant nature and it has existed since infinite time. The research,observations,and calculations carried out by means of modern technology,however,have revealed that the universe in fact had a beginning, and that it constantly “expands”.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian physicist Alexander Friedman and the Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre theoretically calculated that the universe is in constant motion and that it is expanding. This fact was also proved by observational data in 1929.While observing the sky with a telescope ,Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer, discovered that the stars and galaxies were constantly moving away from each other. A universe where everything constantly moves away from everything else implied a constantly expanding universe. The observations carried out in the following years verified that the universe is constantly expanding. This fact was explained in the Qur’an when that was still unknown to anyone. This is because the Qur’an is the word of God, the Creator, and the ruler of the entire universe.
All celestial bodies including planets, satellites of these planets, stars,and even galaxies have their own orbits that have been determined with very delicate computations. The One who established this perfect order and maintains it is God, Who created the entire universe.
The Protected Roof.
Quranic view: In the Qur’an, God calls our attention to a very interesting attribute of the sky:
“We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from our signs..”
Scientific view: This attribute of the sky has been proved by scientific research carried out in the 20th century. The atmosphere surrounding the earth serves crucial functions for the continuity of life.Whlie destroying many meteors big and small as they approach the earth, it prevents them from falling to earth and harming living things… The above photo belongs to a giant crater caused by a meteor that fell in Arizona, in the USA.If the atmosphere did not exist, millions of meteoroids would fall to the earth and the earth would become an inhabitable place.Yet,the protective aspect of the atmosphere allows living things to survive in safety. This is certainly God’s protection of people, and a miracle proclaimed in the Qur’an.
In addition, the atmosphere filters the light rays coming from space that are harmful to living things.Interestingly,the atmosphere lets only harmless and useful rays—visible light, near ultraviolet light, and radio waves pass through. All of this radiation is vital for life. The protective function of the atmosphere does not end here. The atmosphere also protects the earth from the freezing cold of the space, which is about minus 270*C.The celestial bodies wandering in space could pose a serious threat to the Earth. Yet God, He Who creates most perfectly, has made the atmosphere a protective roof. Thanks to this special protection, most meteoroids do not harm the Earth, as they fall to pieces in the atmosphere. Most people looking at the sky do not think about the protective aspect of the atmosphere. They almost never think what kind of a place the world would be like if this structure did not exist.
The magnetosphere layer, formed by the magnetic field of the Earth, serves as a shield protecting the Earth from celestial bodies, harmful cosmic rays and particles. In the above picture, this magnetosphere layer, which is also named Van Allen Belts, is seen. These belts at thousands of kilometers above the Earth protect the living things on the Earth from the fatal energy that would otherwise reach it from space.
All these scientific findings prove that the world is protected in a very particular way. The important thing is that this protection was made known in the Qur'an in the verse "We made the sky a preserved and protected roof" fourteen centuries ago.
It is He Who made the Earth a couch for you, and the sky a dome. He sends down water from the sky and by it brings forth fruits for your provision. Do not, then, knowingly make others equal to Allah.
Here, the sky is described as "al-samaa' Binna'." As well as the meaning of "dome" or "ceiling," this also describes a kind of tent-like covering used by the Bedouin By describing the sky as a tent-like structure, the Qur'an is emphasizing that it is a form of protection against external elements.

Even if we are generally unaware of it, a large number of meteors fall to the Earth, as they do to the other planets. The reason why these make enormous craters on other planets but do no harm on Earth is that the atmosphere puts up considerable resistance to a falling meteor. The meteor is unable to withstand this for long and loses much of its mass from combustion due to friction. This danger, which might otherwise cause terrible disasters, is thus prevented thanks to the atmosphere. As well as the verses regarding the protective properties of the atmosphere cited above, attention is also drawn to the special creation in the following verse:
Don't you see that Allah has made everything on the Earth subservient to you and the ships running upon the sea by His command? He holds back the heaven, preventing it from falling to the Earth-except by His permission. Allah is All-Compassionate to humanity, Most Merciful.
The protective property of the atmosphere we discussed in the preceding section protects the Earth from space-in other words, from external elements. With the word "dome," referring to the sky in the above verse, attention is drawn to this aspect of the sky, which could not possibly have been known at the time of our Prophet (saw). The fact that this information was imparted 1,400 years ago in the Qur'an, when there were no spacecraft or giant telescopes, shows that the Qur'an is the revelation of our Lord, the Omniscient.
The verse 11 of Surat at-Tariq in the Qur’an refers to the "returning" function of the sky.
[I swear] by heaven which returns.
The word "raj`" interpreted as "return" in Qur'an translations has meanings of "sending back" or "returning." As is known, the atmosphere surrounding the Earth consists of many layers. Each layer serves an important purpose for the benefit of life on Earth. Research has revealed that these layers have the function of turning the materials or rays they are exposed to back into space or back down to the Earth. Now let us examine, employing a few fitting examples, this "returning" function of the layers encircling the Ear.

No! I swear by the planets-that recede, that ride their course [and] hide themselves.
The word "khunnas" in Surat at-Takwir 15 bears such meanings as shrinking and cowering, retracting and turning back. The Arabic expression translated as "hide themselves" in the 16th verse is "kunnas." The word "kunnas" is the plural form of "kanis" and refers to a specific path: entering a nest, the home of a body in motion or things entering their homes and hiding there. Again in verse 16, the word "aljawari," the plural form of the word "jariya" which means one that moves and flows, is translated as "that ride their course."

These words in the above verses fully describe orbital movements stemming from the force of gravity. Of these, the word "khunnas" refers to the planets' attraction towards their own centers’ and also their attraction towards the Sun, which is the centre of our Solar System. (Allah knows best.) The force of gravity already existed in the universe-although it was only possible to reveal this attractive force with mathematical formulae with Sir Isaac Newton, who lived in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The word "aljawari" in the following verse emphasizes the orbital movements that arise as a result of the centrifugal force that opposes this attractive one. There is no doubt that the use of the word "aljawari" together with "khunnas" (attraction towards the centre, shrinkage) and "kunnas" (path, entering the nest, the home of a body in motion) indicates an important scientific truth that nobody could have known about 1,400 years ago. (Allah knows best.) Moreover, these verses, one of the subjects sworn on in the Qur'an, are another indication of the importance of the subject.

Humanity's exploration of space was accelerated with the Soviet satellite Sputnik on 4 October 1957, which launch is considered by NASA as the dawn of the “Space Age.” The first man to ever leave the Earth's atmosphere was the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin who made his space flight in 1961 in Vostok 1 spacecraft. On 20 July 1969, the American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first human being ever to set foot on the Moon.
In fact, the Qur'an revealed that such developments and achievements would one day be realised. For instance, Allah draws our attention to this in the following verse:
O company of jinn and human beings! If you are able to pierce through the confines of the heavens and Earth, pierce through them. You will not pierce through, except with a clear authority.
The Arabic word sultan, translated here as "a clear authority," has other meanings as well: force, power, sovereignty, dominion, law, path, permission, give leave, justify, and proof.
Careful examination reveals that the above verse emphasizes that humanity will be able to move into the depths of Earth and sky, but only with a superior power. In all likelihood, this superior power is the superior technology employed in the twentieth century, for it enabled scientists to achieve this great feat.
And [I swear by] the Moon when it is full, you will mount up stage by stage! What is the matter with them, that they have no faith?
After referring to the Moon, the above verses then say that people will mount up stage by stage. The term tarkabu comes from the verb rakiba, (to mount, walk on a path, follow, embark upon, set about, participate, or rule). In the light of these meanings, it is very likely that the expression "you will mount up stage by stage" refers to a vehicle to be boarded.
Indeed, the astronauts' spacecraft pass through each layer of the atmosphere one by one, and then begin to pass through the Moon's gravitational field. Thus, the Moon is reached by moving through individual layers. In addition, the swearing by the Moon in Surat al-Inshiqaq 18 further strengthens this emphasis, meaning that the verse may well be a sign that humanity will travel to the Moon. (Allah knows best).
Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the Earth in six days and then settled Himself firmly on the Throne.. .
One example of the harmony between the Qur'an and modern science is the subject of the age of the universe. Cosmologists estimate the age of the universe as 16-17 billion years. The Qur'an states that the entire universe was created in six days. These two time frames, which may seem contradictory, are actually surprisingly compatible. In fact, both these figures concerning the age of the universe are correct. In other words, the universe was created in six days, as revealed in the Qur'an, and this period corresponds to 16-17 billion years in the way that we experience time.
In 1915 Einstein proposed that time was relative, that the passage of time altered according to space, the speed of the person travelling and the force of gravity at that moment. Bearing in mind these differences in the passage of time, the period of time in which the universe was created as revealed in seven different verses of the Qur'an is actually highly compatible with scientists' estimations. The six-day period revealed in the Qur'an can be thought of as six periods. Because, taking into account the relativity of time, a "day" refers only to a 24-hour period experienced on Earth under current conditions. Elsewhere in the universe, however, at another time and under other conditions, a "day" could refer to a much longer period of time. Indeed, the word "ayyaam" in the period of six days (sittat ayyaam) in these verses (means not only "days," but also "age, period, moment, term."
In the first period of the universe, the passage of time took place much faster than that with which we are familiar today. The reason for this is that, at the moment of the Big Bang, our universe was compressed into a very small point. The expansion of the universe and increase in its volume ever since the moment of that explosion has extended the borders of the universe to millions of light years. Indeed, the stretching of space ever since that moment has had very important ramifications for universal time.
The energy at the moment of the Big Bang slowed down the flow of time 1012 (one million million) times. When the universe was created the speed of universal time was higher up to a million million times, as time is experienced today. In other words, a million million minutes on Earth is the equivalent of just one minute in universal time.
When a six-day period of time is calculated according to the relativity of time, it equates to six million million (six trillion) days. That is because universal time flows a million million times faster than time on Earth. Calculated in terms of years, 6 trillion days equates to approximately 16.427 billion years. This is within the estimated range for the age of the universe.
6,000,000,000,000 days/365.25 = 16.427104723 billion years
On the other hand, each of the six days of creation equates to very different periods, as we perceive time. The reason for this is that the speed of the passage of time declines in proportion to the expansion of the universe. Ever since the Big Bang, as the size of the universe doubled, so the passage of time halved. As the universe grew, the speed at which the universe doubled increasingly slowed down. This rate of expansion is a scientific fact acknowledged the world over and described in the text book The Fundamentals of Physical Cosmology. When we calculate every day of creation in terms of Earth time, the following situation emerges:
* Looked at from the moment when time began, the first day of creation (first phase) lasted 24 hours. This period, however, is the equivalent of 8 billion years in Earth terms.
* The second day of creation (second phase) lasted 24 hours. This, however, lasted half as long, in our terms, as the preceding day, in other words 4 billion years.
* The third day (third phase) lasted half as long as the second day, in other words 2 billion years.
* The fourth day (fourth phase) lasted 1 billion years.
* The fifth day (fifth phase) lasted 500 million years.
* And the sixth day (sixth phase) lasted 250 million years.
* Conclusion: When the six days of creation, in other words the six phases, are added together in Earth terms, the resulting figure is 15 billion 750 million years. This figure displays an enormous parallel with modern-day estimations.
This conclusion is one of the facts revealed by 21st century science. Science has once again confirmed a fact revealed in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago. This harmony between the Qur'an and science is one of the miraculous proofs that the Qur'an is the revelation of Allah, the Creator, the Omniscient.

The star Sirius appears in Surat an-Najm (meaning “star”). The double stars that comprise Sirius approach each other with their axes in a bow-shape once every 49.9 years. This astronomical phenomenon is indicated in the verse
When certain concepts mentioned in the Qur'an are studied in the light of 21st century scientific discoveries we find ourselves imparted with yet more miracles of the Qur'an. One of these is the star Sirius, mentioned in Surat an-Najm 49:
... it is He Who is the Lord of Sirius.
The fact that the Arabic word "shi'raa," the equivalent of the star Sirius, appears only in Surat an-Najm, meaning only "star," 49 is particularly striking. Because, considering the irregularity in the movement of Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, as their starting point, scientists discovered that it was actually a double star. Sirius is actually a set of two stars, known as Sirius A and Sirius B. The larger of these is Sirius A, which is also the closer to the Earth and the brightest star that can be seen with the naked eye. Sirius B, however, cannot be seen without a telescope.
The Sirius double stars orbit in ellipses about one another. The orbital period of Sirius A & B about their common centre of gravity is 49.9 years. This scientific data is today accepted with one accord by the departments of astronomy at Harvard, Ottawa and Leicester Universities. This information is reported as follows in various sources:
Sirius, the brightest star, is actually a twin star... Its orbit lasts 49.9 years.
As is known, the stars Sirius-A and Sirius-B orbit each other in a double bow every 49.9 years.
The point requiring attention here is the double, bow-shaped orbit of the two stars around one another.
However, this scientific fact, the accuracy of which was only realised in the late 20th century, was miraculously indicated in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago. When verses 49 and 9 of Surat an-Najm are read together, this miracle becomes apparent:
It is He Who is the Lord of Sirius.
He was two bow-lengths away or even closer.
The description in Surat an-Najm 9 may also describe how these two stars approach one another in their orbits. (Allah knows best.) This scientific fact that nobody could have known at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an once again proves that the Qur'an is the word of Almighty Allah .
One of the most important reasons for the great equilibrium in the universe is the fact that celestial bodies follow specific paths. Stars, planets and satellites all rotate around their own axes and also rotate together with the system of which they are a part. The universe functions within a finely-tuned order, just like the wheels in a factory.
There are more than 100 billion galaxies in the visible universe and each small galaxy contains approximately a billion stars. Furthermore, each big galaxy contains more than a trillion. Many of these stars have planets and many of those planets have satellites. All these celestial bodies follow the most finely calculated paths and orbits. For millions of years, each one has been moving in its own path in flawless harmony with all the others. In addition to these, there are also a great many comets moving along in their own pre-determined paths.

Like many other comets in the universe, Halley's comet, seen below, also moves in a planned orbit. It has a specific orbit and it moves in this orbit in a perfect harmony with other celestial bodies.
All celestial bodies-including planets, satellites of these planets, star and even galaxies-have their own orbits that have been determined with very delicate computations. The One Who established this perfect order and maintains it is Allah, Who created the entire universe.

In addition, the paths in the universe are not restricted to a few celestial bodies. The Solar System and even other galaxies also exhibit considerable motion around other centres. Every year, Earth, and the Solar System with it, move some 500 million km (310 million miles) from where they were the previous year. It has been calculated that even the slightest deviation from celestial bodies' paths could have drastic consequences which might spell the end of the entire system. For example, the consequences of the Earth's deviating from its course by a mere 3 mm have been described in one source as follows:
While rotating around the sun, the earth follows such an orbit that, every 18 miles, it only deviates 2.8 millimetres from a direct course. The orbit followed by the earth never changes, because even a deviation of 3 millimetres would cause catastrophic disasters: If the deviation were 2.5 mm instead of 2.8 mm, then the orbit would be very large, and all of us would freeze. If the deviation were 3.1 mm, we would be scorched to death.
Another characteristic of heavenly bodies is that they also rotate around their own axes. The verse which reads "[I swear] by Heaven which returns," indicates this truth. Naturally, at the time when the Qur'an was revealed, people had no telescopes with which to study bodies millions of kilometres away in space, advanced observation technology or our modern knowledge of physics and astronomy. It was therefore impossible to establish that space had "its oscillating orbits," as described in the verse. The Qur'an however, revealed at that time, provided clear information concerning that fact. This is proof that this book is indeed Allah's word.

It is stressed in the Qur'an that the Sun and Moon follow specific trajectories:
It is He Who created night and day and the Sun and Moon, each one swimming in a sphere.
The word "swim" in the above verse is expressed in Arabic by the word "sabaha" and is used to describe the movement of the Sun in space. The word means that the Sun does not move randomly through space but that it rotates around its axis and follows a course as it does so. The fact that the Sun is not fixed in position but rather follows a specific trajectory is also stated in another verse:
And the Sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.
These facts set out in the Qur'an were only discovered by means of astronomical advances in our own time. According to astronomers' calculations, the Sun moves along a path known as the Solar Apex in the path of the star Vega at an incredible speed of 720,000 kmph (447,000 mph). In rough terms, this shows that the Sun traverses some 17.28 million km (10.74 million miles) a day. As well as the Sun itself, all the planets and satellites within its gravitational field also travel the same distance.
And We have decreed set phases for the Moon, until it ends up looking like an old date branch. It is not for the Sun to overtake the Moon nor for the night to outstrip the day; is each one swimming in a sphere.
The Moon does not follow a regular orbit like the satellites of other planets. As it orbits the Earth, it sometimes moves behind it and sometimes in front. As it also moves with the Earth around the Sun, it actually follows a constant pattern resembling the letter "S" in space. This route, traced by the Moon in space, is described in the Qur'an as resembling an old date branch and does indeed resemble the twisted form of the date tree branch. Indeed, the word "urjoon" employed in the Qur'an refers to a thin and twisted date branch and is used to describe that part left after the fruit has been picked. The way that this branch is described as "old" is also most appropriate since old date branches are thinner and more twisted.

There is no doubt that it was impossible for anyone to have any knowledge about the orbit of the Moon 1,400 years ago. The way that this pattern, identified by modern technology and accumulated knowledge, was revealed in the Book is yet another scientific miracle of the Qur'an.
Since the Moon revolves around the Sun together with the Earth, it follows a path through space which resembles the letter "S." The appearance of this orbit resembles the twisted shape of a dry date branch, as is revealed in the Qur'an.
The Sun’s Moon

The Quran on Sun’s Motion:
Alif Lam Mim Ra. These are the messages of the book of revelation (the Quran); and what has been bestowed upon you (O Muhammad) form on high by your sustainer is the truth, yet most people do not believe. It is God who has raised the heavens without supports that you could see. And he is established on the throne (of His almightiness); and he has made the sun and the moon subservient (Saqqara), each running (yajri) its course for a term set (li-ajal musamma).He governs all that exists. Clearly does He spell out these messages (ayat), so that you might be certain that you are destined to meet your Sustainer?
Do you not observe that it is God who makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and He makes the day longer by shorting the night, and that he has made the sun and the moon subservient, each running its course for a set term, and that God is fully aware of all that you do?
Thus it is because God alone is the ultimate Truth, so that all that men instead of Him is sheer falsehood; and because God alone is exalted, truly great!

Summary and Explanation:
The sun, moon and earth are not stationary. They are “floating” in the “sky” or “the heavens”; they are
“Running” in subservience to the will or laws of God. They are kept afloat by God by an invisible force. We can ourselves “see” that they are not held up by any visible column or support (amad). The movements of these planets and stars are for the fixed time (li-ajal musamma); thus their speed, direction, life-span, etc.are pre-determined. The sun and the moon are not allowed to overtake or collide with one and another. The sun is moving towards or to (illa) a place or a point of rest (mustaqar); thus its direction, duration, and life are also (taqdir) of God. He is the regulator of these matters .On the basis of these observable facts, or rationally knowable astronomical science, it is asserted that these are verses or messages of the Book of God, the Quran. It was revealed to Muhammad, the Messenger of God; and people must believe in the Day of Judgment when God will put an end to this universe as we know it; and we will be judged for our deeds in life.

What is the fact given in these verses that we can know based on our contemporary rational knowledge? What are the conclusions the human mind can deduce form them? And how have they changed form age to age since the Quran was revealed?

These verses of the Holy Quran were revealed to Muhammad 1400 years ago during the years 13 BH.-10 A.H. / A.D.610-632.What were the state of human knowledge concerning this subject in the Arabian Peninsula where Muhammad was born and raised? What were the human ideas then in other nearby and far off societies, and their intellectual legacies? How much agreement and disagreement was there between those human ideas in the first century A.H / seventh century A.D and these Quranic ideas? And what the relation between the Quranic astronomical ideas as they are the understood today and the modern human knowledge? Only the twentieth century A.D, do we seem to have true knowledge of this subject due to the availability of verifiable data or “scientific evidence”. These and other questions beg for answers form Islamic intellectuals. The following short history of the evolution of rational knowledge on the sun’s movements brings out the agreement between modern scientific concepts on the subject and the ideas presented in the Quran.
Pre-Quranic Views:
In the first century A.H / seventh century A.D. / The most influential human knowledge in the Near East about the universe was based on Greek astronomy. Ptolemy, who flourished in the second century A.C. in Alexandria, Egypt, presented this in his Almagest. He summarized the ideas of earlier Greek astronomers, especially Hipparchus of the second century B.C. The Ptolemaic system was based on a geocentric (earth-centered) theory. Ptolemy had said that the earth is the center of the universe and it had no motion. The sun.\, moon and other bodies were supposed to revolve around the earth along the circumference of a circle called the deferent; their orbits were circles, called epicycles whose centers would be on the deferent. The Quranic verses do not support the Ptolemaic view of the universe.
Modern and Contemporary Sciences and Theories:
Copernicus (A.D.1473-1543) published his masterpiece, concerning the revolution of the Celestial Spheres, in 1543. He presented the view that the earth is a moving planet. People do not feel this motion because they travel with the earth. However, this heliocentric hypothesis made the sun the center of the universe. It proposed that the earth and other planets travel around the sun. This was opposed by Tycho Brache because it was not possible then to measure correctly the parallax of stars. Friedrich Bessel was the first person to publish an authentic measurement of the annual parallax of a star. He proved thus, the motion of the earth. But this also seemed to support the heliocentric theory.
Only in the middle of thirteenth century A.H/ nineteenth century A.D. did scientists realize that the apparent daily movement of the celestial sphere and its bodies is merely the reflection of the earth’s rotation on its own axis. The sun apparent motion must be attributed to the earth’s revolution on its orbit around the sun; the sun appears in different directions due to the earth’s position in its orbit.
The discovery of the movements and direction of the sun, our solar system and our galaxy, is a most recent achievement of human thought. It has been built up on a series of discoveries. Galileo saw in A.D.1610, after the telescope was introduced to astronomy, that the Milky Way Galaxy is a huge gathering of stares; our solar system is a part of this galaxy.
In the second decade of the twentieth century, it was estimated that the Milky Way galaxy, which included about 200 billion stars, has a diameter of about 100,000 light years. A light year is the distance traveled by light in one year when light is traveling at a speed of 300,000 kilometers per second (km /s)! The sun lies nearer to the edge of the Milky Way; it is not the center of this galaxy or the universe as was thought in the heliocentric view.
Other galaxy with the spiral arms was discovered in 1925; their stars also seemed to move. An analysis of the motion of stars in our galaxy suggested that sun revolves in circular orbit round the galaxy’s center at a speed of about 220 km / s to complete a revolution every 200 million years. It was also estimated that the sun moves, in relation to the group of stars near it, at about 19.7 km / s in a direction pointing to the Wager Star in the Lyra Galaxy. This direction is known as the solar apex. Thus the sun too moves in an orbit and a specific direction.
Much progress has been made in astronomical studies during the second half of the fourteenth century A.H. / twentieth century A.D. Scientists claimed in 1975 that they had discovered many other galaxies. The speed of our Milky Way Galaxy was found to be about 500 km / s. They estimated that the Milky Way Galaxy, including our solar system and billions of other stars and the Andromeda and other neighboring galaxy are all running in cosmic space at a speed of 600 km / s approximately. They have a direction which is perpendicular to the line of vision between the solar system and the galaxy’s center; it is opposite to the direction of the galaxy’s revolution and above its plane at about 27 degrees. Thus the Milky Way and other galaxy have both a speed and direction.
What is causing this movement speed and direction?
Scientists have tried to answer these questions by proposing the existence of a secondary movement caused by the “Big Bang” is supposed to be a massive release of radiation that caused the beginning of the universe. Another explanation is that there is a “great attracter” constituted by great masses located in some place! A group of researchers announced in 1986 that they had discovered “the great attracter” and its location they estimated it to be in the direction of the Hydra Centaurus galaxy at a distance which is twice its distance form the earth, i.e., about 200 million light years!
Human knowledge shows that the local system, including our sun, the solar system and our Milky Way Galaxy are in motion. They are speed in space, perhaps, towards “the great attracter” which is over 200 million light years form the earth. This system revolving with group and islands of other galaxies. This motion is supposed to be due to the expansion of the universe and its galactical recession. The sun’s motion towards its solar apex was not known except very recently in this century. The orbital motion of the sun around the galaxy’s center, like the moon’s movement around the earth, was also discovered recently. These and other recent scientific ideas seem to confirm the basic ideas reveled in the Quran.

The Universe:

Astrologers vs. Astronomy:
Shaytan, Satan, denotes in the Holy Quran a force, impulse, person, etc., that is “remote form or opposed to” what is true and good, esp. God and His laws and ethical postulates.
Rujum means throwing like the stone, at random; metaphorically, it means, making the object of guesswork, or speaking conjecturally.
The Quran on Astrologers vs. Astronomy:
And, indeed, We have set up in the heavens great constellations and endowed them with beauty for the beholders and We have made them secure against every accursed satan except that anyone who seek to learn by stealth is pursued by a flame clear to see.
And indeed we have adorned the skies nearest to the earth with lamps and have made them the object of futile guesses for the Satans and for them have we readied suffering though a blazing flam.
And suffering in hall awaits all who reject their Sustainer and how vile a journey’s end.
Summary and Explanation:
The sun, moon, other stars and planets, the earth and all that is on it haveallabeen created by God for man to be of service to him. God has made them subservient to His command, they obediently pursue their courses. Their legitimate functions and uses are to give light and energy, guidance in travel to be a source of reckoning for many purpose, etc. It is even possible to approach them; but those who do so will find that these heavenly bodies are surrounded by a “flam” that is “piercing” and very apparent.
The heavenly bodies should not be used to “steal” knowledge; that is to influence and predict the future through astrology. This is wrong and illegitimate according to Islamic ethics. The astrologers are Satans or extremely bad people. Man has been endowed with freedom and responsibility; he is not determined by the movements of stars and the other assumptions of astrology. He has the capacity to make the universe serve principles given in the Quran.
The astrologers are not applying true knowledge they are indulging in mere wild guesses and harming those who become victims of their elaborate lies and deceptions. Therefore, they are Satans; they are the worst kind of people because they have debased the very concept of knowledge based on the truth of facts and laws of nature as created and determined by God. They have made falsehood and deception a profession. Thus astrology, that deals with the horoscopes of individuals and also predication of the future of events and institutions is condemned in the Quran in the strongest possible terms.
The heavenly bodies are themselves “protected” form the powers attributed to them of knowledge and determining the future. The are merely creation of God’s laws of the physical sciences and astronomy. Unlike man, they have no moral freedom.
Thus God’s moral and physical laws and their application by qualified man determine the destiny of individuals and nations these are not determined by stars.
The Expanding Universe
The Quran on the Expanding Universe
With power and skill did we construct the Firmament: for it is we who create the vastness of pace…We have built the heaven with might, and we it is who make the vast extent (thereof).... And the heaven, we raised it high with power, and most surely we are the makers of things ample... And the heaven we created with might, and indeed we are (its) expander .
The earlier translations do not support the expanding universe. Therefore, it is appropriate to question the translation that uses the word, "expanding”. These earlier translations support that Muslims are looking for anything they can find to build support for their belief system. Nevertheless, the analysis herein will consider the possibility that the Quran does in fact contain scientific observations that have only been discovered by scientists in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Summary and Explanation;
At the time of the revelation of the Quran, the word “space” was not known, and people used the word “heaven” to refer to what lies above the Earth. In the above verse, the word “heaven” is referring to space and the known universe. The verse points out that space, and thus the universe, happens to be expanding, just as Hubble’s Law states.
That the Quran mentioned such a fact century before the invention of the first telescope, at a time when there was primitive knowledge in science, is considered remarkable. This is more so considering that, like many people in his time, Prophet Muhammad happened to be illiterate and simply could not have been aware of such facts by himself. Could it be that he had truly received divine revelation from the Creator and Originator of the universe?

“Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and then we separated them, and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe? ”
In the previous verse, the Arabic words ratq and fataq are used. The word ratq can be translated into “entity” “sewn to” “joined together” or “closed up”. The meaning of these translations all circulate around something that is mixed and that has a separate and distinct existence. The verb fataq is translated into “We unstitched” “We clove them asunder” “We separated” or “We have opened them”. These meanings imply that something comes into being by an action of splitting or tearing apart. The sprouting of a seed from the soil is a good example of a similar illustration of the meaning of the verb fataq.
Big Bang Theory:
Soon after Hubble published his theory, he went on to discover that not only were galaxies moving away from the Earth, but were also moving away from one another. This meant that the universe happened to be expanding in every direction, in the same way a balloon expands when filled with air. Hubble’s new findings placed the foundations for the Big Bang theory.
The Big Bang theory states that around 12-15 billion years ago the universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point, and that something triggered the explosion of this point that brought about the beginning of the universe. The universe, since then, has been expanding from this single point.
In 1965, radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made a Noble Prize winning discovery that confirmed the Bing Bang theory. Prior to their discovery, the theory implied that if the single point from which the universe came into existence was initially extremely hot, then remnants of this heat should be found. This remnant heat is exactly what Penzias and Wilson found. In 1965, Penzias and Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation that spreads through the universe. Thus, it was understood that the radiation found was a remnant of the initial stages of the Big Bang. Presently, the Big Bang theory is accepted by the vast majority of scientists and astronomers.

The theory states that all the matter in the universe came into existence from one single extremely hot and dense point; that exploded and brought about the beginning of the universe, matches what is mentioned in the verse that the heaven and Earth (thus the universe) where once joined together, and then split apart. Once again, the only possible explanation is that Prophet Muhammad had truly received divine revelation from God, The Creator and Originator of the universe.
The Universe or the Solar System:
Birth and Evolution:
The Qur’an on the Birth and development of the Solar System:
“Do the Rejecters not see that the two; heavens and earth were closed up then we parted asunder the two? And we made out of the water every living thing. Will they not then, believe?"
“And He applied His design to the skies which were smoke; and He said to them and the earth, ‘Come, both of you, willing or unwilling! They both responded, we do come in obedience.
AND He decreed that they become seven heavens in two days, and imparted to each heaven its command. And we adorned the skies nearest to the earth with lights, and made them secure; such is the ordination of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.”
Summary and Explanation:
The two key verb or their derivatives, ritqa form rataqa, and fataq form fataqa, each occurs only once in the Qur’an in this verse. Ritqa means closed up; sewed up, or together; closed up, without any interstice. Fataqa means to slit; rent asunder or open; disjoin, disunite, divide up; unsew, unstitch. “The heavens and the earth” may be understood here to refer to our solar system which is a very tiny part of the “universe”.
Literal meaning of the key word and the verse above? The answer is separate entities, “the heavens and the earth” were once something closed up or joined together; the two were then disjoined.
The obvious implication of the latter is that it is possible to observe or know these cosmological phenomena; and it is man’s duty to do so. Must the Rejecters of God and Islam, then, become believers based on this cosmological evidence of God’s work?

Modern Cosmological Science and Theories:
Astronomers observed in the early 1900 that the light form stars in distant galaxies was shifted toward the longer or red wavelengths of the spectrum. This is due to the rapid motion of the galaxies away form the earth; the concluded that the universe was expanding. This “red shift” allowed astronomers to study the speed of the motion of the galaxies at various distances form the earth. They calculated that all galaxies came form one point in the universe about 13 billion years ago; they believed, therefore, that the universe was born 13 billion years ago. The universe was born as a result of an explosion which consisted chiefly the “primordial fireball”. Later on the fireball change into matter consisting mostly of hydrogen and small amounts of helium and other eliments.The radiation sphere and matter continued to move away form the point of the Big Bag explosion. In due course the matter broke apart in massive clump which became galaxies. A part of one such clump became a group of planets and one star which is the sun; this is our solar system which was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. The “monistic theories” suggest that the solar system was formed form one cloud of gas, the “dualistic theories” hold that the solar system was formed when an object passed near the sun: its force of gravity pulled a stream of gas form the sun to form the planets and other objects in the solar system.
Altitude Sickness
Only one Quranic verse alludes to the physiological effects of ascending in "the sky." The Quranic key words and concepts include: heart, bosom; ascending; sky; punishment; restricted, narrow, hence difficult; constricted, straitened, hence troubled; the people who seek admonition or remembrance from God's signs.
The Quran on Attitude Sickness:
Allah said, "So whomsoever God wills to guide, his bosom He opens wide towards Islam (lit, the surrender); and whomsoever He wills to let go astray, his bosom He causes to be restricted and constricted as if he were ascending in the sky. It is thus that God inflicts punishment on those who do not believe. And this, thy Sustainer's way, is straight. Clearly, indeed, have we spelled out the signs for people who take admonition?"
Summary and Explanation:
There are many verses in the Quran where the heart and the bosom or chests are referred to in the physical and metaphorical senses. In this verse, the bosom is mentioned twice but with two different meanings. Here we are concerned with only the physical effects of ascending in "the sky." The heart develops problems as if it was getting closed and constricted.

The questions we may raise are: Does ascending in the sky mean both going up to higher altitudes as in mountain climbing, and ascending into upper atmospheric regions and space? Are the conditions described in the verse correct according to our modern sciences and experience? What causes the effects described in the two adjectives, and how can we interpret them? What kinds of problems, or punishments, can be expected from such ascending? What are God's "signs" or laws concerning such ascending in relation to human physiology? Who are the "believers," and the people who remember or take admonition from these signs of God?

Modern Knowledge on Ascending to Higher Altitudes and Effect on the Heart:

The earth's atmosphere is an "ocean" of air which gets thinner as we rise up. Over 99% of the atmosphere lies below the thermosphere - the layer that begins about 50 miles above the earth. With less air, air pressure decreases with altitude. It is 14.7lbs. Per square inch at sea level, 10.2 at 10,000 feet elevation, 6.4 at 20,000 feet, and only 1.6 lbs per inch at 50,000 feet (about 9.5 miles) altitude.

Man needs oxygen and air pressure to survive. Most people are accustomed to living under 5,000 feet. The Tibetans and Indians of Bolivia have adapted to high altitudes up to 17,000 feet; they do hard labor, though newcomers may pant for breath at each step.

The amount of oxygen entering the blood stream decreases at higher altitudes because of reduced atmospheric pressure. If the oxygen content of the blood drops below the body's needs, one gets "altitude sickness." This is characterized by shortness of breath, fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, and faulty judgment.

Anoxia is the lack of a normal supply of oxygen to body tissues, or their failure to utilize oxygen. Anoxic anoxia occurs when blood flowing in the lungs does not take in enough oxygen due to lack of oxygen in the air breathed, or diseases of the lungs and blood. This scarcity of oxygen occurs at 10,000 to 15,000 feet (altitude), in poorly ventilated areas, etc.

Healthy people develop symptoms of anoxic anoxia when they breathe air with two-thirds or less the normal oxygen content. They may lose consciousness when they get one-half or less of needed oxygen, but life may be saved if oxygen is given immediately.
The Quran cannot be produced by any creature. It is the word of the Almighty God, the Originator of everything and the One Who encompasses everything with His knowledge. As how could any creature reveal such scientific facts and signs, as indicated above in some Quranic verses, that were impossible to be known with the level of knowledge at the time of revelation? The Quran, with the description of all these scientific facts in accurate terms that fit with the modern rules of science, affirms that this is revealed by Allah. Man only unfolded these signs so many centuries after it had been revealed by Allah, with the help of modern technology. The Quran is the word of Allah Who has created everything and knows the slightest details of His creation.
Who can inspire to the Prophet Mohammed, other than Allah, such scientific truths in such a noble and well contrived language ?
Although they possessed and knew the tools of the Arabic language, the unbelievers of Makkah were challenged to produce one verse of such Quran. Yet, up to date and till doomsday the challenge still stands:
“If the whole of mankind and Jinns were to gather together to produce the like of this Quran, they would never produce its like, not though they backed one another.” (17:88)
"قل لئن إجتمعت الأنسُ والجنُ على أن يأتوا بمثلِ هذا القرآن ، لا يأتونَ بمثلهِ ولو كان بعضُهم لبعضٍ ظهيرا." ( الإسراء : 88)

Allah also says in the Holy Quran;
“If it had been from other than Allah, surely they would have found in it much inconsistencies” (4:82)
"ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه إختلافا كثيرا" (النساء :82)

With the passage of ages, every word of Quran still reveals the divine and miraculous nature of this Holy Book. For the believers of Quran, this is a message to hold fast to this divine book and receive it as their only guide in this world and the Hereafter:
“And this is a Book We have sent down and blesses, so follow it and have fear of Allah so that hopefully you will gain mercy.” (6:155).
(وَهَـذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَاتَّقُواْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ) الأنعام 155
For the unbelievers, it is a call to open their minds and hearts to word of Allah, the Holy Quran, and contemplate and ponder the last revelation to mankind. Yet, Allah remarks;
“Say, ‘The truth is from your Lord; so let whosoever wishes believe, and let whosoever wishes disbelieve.” (18: 29)
(وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَمَن شَاء فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاء فَلْيَكْفُرْ) الكهف 29
And; "No Indeed! It is a reminder, and whoso wills, pays heed to it" (80:11-12)
(كَلَّا إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌ ، فَمَن شَاء ذَكَرَهُ ) عبس 11-12
“And say: ‘Praise be to Allah, Who will soon show you His signs, so that ye shall know them’ " (27: 93)
( وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ سَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ فَتَعْرِفُونَهَا) (النمل: 93)
and Who also says; “Soon will We show them our signs in the furthest horizons, and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth” (41: 53).
( سنريهم آياتنا في الآفاق و في أنفسهم حتى يتبين
لهم أنه الحق ) ( فصلت 53)

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