Sunday, June 26, 2011

contribution of Abbasids Part 2

Central board
There were  5 central boards existed under the umayyads:
1 Diwanu’l jund                                                                                                                                                                2 Diwanu’l-kharaj                                                                                                                                                           3 Diwanu’r-Rasa’il                                                                                                                                                                  4 Diwanu’l-Khatam                                                                                                                                                              5 Diwanu’l-barid
                                                                                                                                                 These were continued under the early “ Abbasids, and many more added to them. In the end of the first century of the Abbasid rule, the following Boards seem to have been established:
6 Diwanu’l-azimmah( the Audit and account board)                                                                                               7 Diwanu-Nazir fil-mazalim (the board of investigation of Grievances).                                                                                     8 Diwanu’n-nafaqat (the board of Expenditure)                                                                                                      9 Diwanu’s-sawafi (the board of Crownlands)                                                                                                                       10 Diwanu-Diya (the board of estates)                                                                                                                                11 Diwanu’s-sirr (the board of Secrecy)                                                                                                                              12 Diwanu’l-Ard (the board of Military inspection)                                                                                                        13 Diwanuttawqi (the board of request)
1 Diwanu’l jund                                                                                                                                                                This diwan was responsible for the recruitment and pay of the troops. Actually, the Caliph or Wazir looked after these matters which were among the most important in the state.
2 Diwanu’l-kharaj                                                                                                                                                           This diwan not only kept the account of the taxes collected, but also maintained the records of the this way it bocome  the central finance board.
3 Diwanu’r-Rasa’il                                                                                                                                                                  

4. Diwanu’l-Khatam
Von Kremer, Ameer Ali, Mez and Levy write that this Board was displaced by Diwanul Tawql, Al-Jahahiyari mentions Diwanu’l Khatam under several of the ‘Abbasid rulers.  According to him, this Boardwas in existence even under al-Amin (09-814 A.D.) Mez writes that Diwanut-Tawqi’ was presided over by Ja’far, the great Wazir of ar-Rashid (786-809 A>D) Ja’far (ex.803 A>D) presided over Diwanu’n-Nazri fi’l-Mazalim, and the orders were known as the tawqi’at. Thus we see that Diwaru’l-Khatam continued at least for a decade even after the establishment of Diwanu’t-Tawqi.
5. Diwanu’l-Barid
            There was a central office at Baghdad which received mails and reports from the whole of the Empire and sorted and disturbed them to the various departments.
6. Diwanu’l-Azimmah
            Some writers have wrongly called it Diwanuz-Zimam. This Diwan, founded by al-Mahdi (158-168) A.H., was called Diwanl-Azimmah at the Centre and Diwanz-Zimam in the provinces. This Board concerned itself with audit and accounts and was an effective means of improving the administration. All provincial audits and accounts officers were under the jurisdiction.
7 Diwanu-Nazir fil-mazalim (the board of investigation of Grievances).                                                                                     

8 Diwanu-Nafaqat
            This Board was concerned with the requirements of the court. It dealt with the salaries of court officials, provisions (bread, meat, sweets, eggs, fruits, fuel,etc), constructions and repairs of the royal buildings, and care of the stables (horses, mules, camels, other animals, and their fodder) and met all contingent expenses connected with the requirements of the court.
9 Diwanu’s-Sawafi and Diwanud-Diya’
            As-Sawafi means crown-land and ad-Diva’ means estates. Both these Boards are mentioned by al-jahahiyari. Buyyt the passatge dealing with ad-Diya” reads” And (al-Mansur) placed Said, his mawla, in charge of his estates.” Therefore, it appears that the crown-lands were under Diwandu’s Sawafi and the personal estates of the Caliph under Diwanud-Diya.
10. Diwanu’s-Sirr
            This Board is mentioned in two places by al-Jahshiyari, that is, under al-Mansur and under ar-Rashid’. In both the place it is reported to be under the same officer who was incharge of Diwanu’r Rasa’il. Possibly it was a section or department of Diwanu’r Rasa’il.
11. Diwanu-l-Ard
            This Board is also mentioned by al-Jahshiyar. It concerned itself with the inspection of military equipment, etc. The arsenals were under a special officer called the Mushrifu’s Sanaati bil-Makhzan. Whether this Board was a part of Diwanu’l-Jund or an independent one is not clear.
12. Diwanu-l-Tawqi
            This Diwan was established which drew up formal documents baased on these short notes, entered them into a register, and sent them on the concerned persons. This Diwan seems to have taken up the work of Diwanu’l-Khatam as well. But Diwanu’l-Khatam is mentioned under the early ‘Abbasids including the reign of al-Amin.
Central Judiciary
       It was in the days of al-Mahdi that the institution of the chief judge (Qadiul-Qadat) came into existence. While at Medina the Prophet himself acted as the chief judge, and had also appointed Qadis for the various provinces of Arabic. Later, the Caliph appointed Qazi who work independent and had neither subordinate under them nor were they under any superior Qadis. Al-Mahdi appointed Abu Yousuf, the most illustrious student of Imam Abu Hanifah, as the Qazi of Qadis. So far, the provincial Qadis were appointed by the Governors of the respective, provinces or directly by the Caliph.
Central Police
       The police was called ash-Shurtah and the poplice officer Shibu’sh-Shurtah by Ali who was responsible for instituting the office. When the ‘Abbasids came to power, the police officer once more became Sahibu’sh-Shurtah. The chief police officer at Baghdad ranked almost as a Governor, and under the later’Abbasids presided over a Diwan and held the rank of a minister. Under the early ‘Abbasids he was the chief of the bodyguard of the Caliph and executed death sentences.
Prison Administration
       Among the pre-Islamic Arabs it was customary to lead the prisoners alaong the streets in chains.
            Under the early ‘Abbasids, the old practice of leading the prisoners along the streets seems to have been revived. Abu Yusuf vehemently criticizing the practice writes. “It is incumbent that every non-Muslim should be fed and well treated till his case is decided. Then what about a Muslaim, who has committed a mistake or a crim? Is he to be left to die of starvation because fate or ignorance has forced him to become what he is?”.... “Do away with leading them in chains for people to give alms to them; for it is a great wrong that Muslims, who have committed some crimes or mistakes. (God having ordained that they should be imprisoned and led outin chains to be bestowed with alms.
Religious Organization
       All the four great schools of Muslim jurisprudence, which are still called by the names of their founders, Abu Hanifah, Malik bin Anas, Asha-Shafii and Ahmad bin Hanbal, flourished under the early ‘Abbasids. ‘Abdullah bin al-Abbas cousin of the Holy Prohphet, was the real founder of Quranic exegensis (at-tafsir). Thus during the early period of the ‘Abbasid rule, the meanings of the verses of the Quran were made more or less definite and the great mass of the sayintgs of the Prophet and reports about his doings collected and arranged. Further, Muslim law was codified and regulations regarding the various religious duties and ceremonies fixed by the four great schools of Muslims law and jurisprudence (al-fiqh). Thus a few marked steps were taken in the direction of making a hitherto elastic and dynamic creed definite and statistic. For the first time in Islam organized religious persecution and inquisition by the state began under the ‘Abbasids. Al-Mahdi established a department of the State to hunt down the heretics and appointed a minister to be in charge of it. He was called Sahibu’z-Zanadiqah. Arrangements for the conduct of prayers throughout the Empre were made as during the previous periods. Thousands of mosques were built. Baghdad alone had 27,000 of them, and the Hajj ceremony was organized by the government as usual. On the whole, there was more of formal religious observances under the ‘Abbasids than before. By gthe end of Umayyad period the conflict between the spread of Islam and the financial interests of the State disappeared. All land-owners had to pay al-kharaj in the kharaj area and al-Jizya was removed from all Muslims. Thus under the early “Abbasids the entire Muslim Empire was Islamized by removing all impediments in the way of new converts and by offering them equal status with the old Muslims both in theory and in practice. 

Sunday, June 12, 2011

Part 1

Contributions of Abbasids:
a.       Women in Abbasid period: In the early past of the Abbasid society, the women enjoyed the same position and liberty as their Umayyad sisters but towards the close of 10th century, they lost their liberty and to observe strict seclusion and absolute segregation of the sexes become general.
The art of tinting the cheeks and lips was in fashion. Anklets and bracelets were in great fashion in the women of that time. Many women excelled in literary and intellectual attainments. Fazl was a gifted poetess in the reign of Mutawakkil. Zainab was a distinguished lawyer. The female generally was fairly educated and they could teach their own children.
b.      Dress: in those days the gentle man’s dress is consisted of wide trousers of Persian origin, shirt, vest and jacket with outer mental. The theologian wore black turbans and mantles. \
c.       Drinks and Dinning:
Drinks were the common feature of the Abbasid society. Even caliphs, judges and wazirs indulged themselves in revelry accompanied with drinks convivial parties and songs. The drinking room was made fragrant.
People dined at the tables placed by the side of Diwan or Sofas.  For each person there was a napkin.
d.      Music:
Music was patronized by the Abbasids. It was a noble profession in the society. Both men and women had great love for music. Princess Ulaya was tan accomplished musician of the time.
e.       Games:
Hunting was the favorite outdoor pastime of all classes of people. Al Amin was found of hunting lions.  Chess was the popular indoor game of Abbasid society. Other games were polo hockey throwing of spears horse racing and wrestling. Racket and tennis was played by both sexes.
f.       Literary gatherings:
The nobles held social reunions and literary gatherings in their houses. Literary clubs had sprung up till the time of Mamun. Where scholar flocked and discussed philosophical subjects.
The book sellers occupied the special and important position in the society.
1.    Education:
The Abbasid period proved it self the golden period of Muslim learning. The Abbasid caliphs not only encouraged learning but also founded schools where besides Arabic literature, theology, philosophy, grammar, mathematics, physics, astrology, astronomy and other branches were studied.
Co education was in vogue in the Abbasid period. Girls and boys of tender age were educated together in the same school. The girls were expected to read the Quran and religious knowledge. A brilliant woman Ammarah used her house as a school.
The benefit of education was equally extended to poor; even slaves were admitted to school some times.
There were three types of teachers’ under Abbasids.
a.       Muallim: they simply teach Quran to the children
b.      Muaddib: they are tutor and it represents a class which was engaged in teaching the sons of the higher strata as well those of princes and caliphs.
c.       Professor of higher learning: they were specialist in the teaching of logic, mathematics and jurisprudence.
During the reign of Haroon and his son, a large number of richly endowed schools were opened, a university was founded and libraries were organized.
Mamun founded an academy named, Bait ul Hikmat.
The real academy in Islam which became the model for later schools of higher learning was the Nizamiyah established by their Persian Wazier, Malik Shah.
It can be safely conducted that the system of education under the Abbasids proved a turning point in the educational history of the modern world.\
2.   Architecture.
During the Abbasid period the Islamic architecture began to develop in its own synthetic and novel designs. Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasids Empire and it was noted for a large number of palaces, mosques and other buildings constructed by the caliphs. It was the capital of the Harun ur Rasheed. Here Mansur founded a round shaped city enclosed by a double wall of four gates.
The main feature of the city was the palace of the caliph, called the Golden Gate. The royal mosque was built with sun burnt bricks, with a roof rested on wooden columns.
In short of the architectural monuments which once adorned the capital city of Baghdad eg palace of eternity, Rusafa palace, Dar us Shajer (Hall of the tree) on account of the golden and silver trees that stood in its pound.
3.    Abbasid’s Administrative Structure.
The Umayyad discriminates on the basis of Arab and non Arab etc and Abbasid effectively exploited it to their advantages.  So in their ruling time they didn’t make such type of discrimination.Henceforth, the non Arabs, as a common subject of a great and civilized empire, assumed their proper place as citizens of Islam, were admitted to the highest employment of state, and enjoyed equal consideration with Arabs.
a.      The Caliphate:
The caliph was the head of the whole empire. He was more a political head then a religious leader although his authority was based on religious factor.Although the caliphate was not a purely religious office like that of the pope, the pious caliph, as the immediate temporal succors of the great Prophet PBUH were the leaders of the pilgrimage, prayer, a good deal of religious elements were attached to their personalities and to their offices.They also nominated the successors without any strict rules and regulations. The nomination of the successors without any regard to the strict rules of inheritance caused civil war as it did under the Umayyads and the house of al Abbas was divided against itself in the very beginning. All the early Abbasid Caliphs, with the exception of the unfortunate Al Amin, were the men of great abilities and worked hard as the chiefs of the entire administration, led the armies in person and acted as the highest court of justice.
b.      The Shura:
In the pre Islamic days their was Council of the Elders to discuss every matter of state, later it became known as the Shura and prophet PBUH and the four rightly guided caliphs consult the subjects through a selected few in all the matters of administration. Al Mamun was the first caliph to constitute a regular council of state representing every community which owed allegiance to him. They have perfect freedom of expression and were not hampered in their discussions.
c.      The Court:
The color of the early Abbasids was Black and it was also the color of their flag bearing in white the inscription, “Muhammad is the messenger of God”.The court staff consisted of the princes of the caliph’s house. The court establishment consumed larger sums but Abbasid caliphs had grand courts.
d.      The Wazir:
Next to the caliph, came the wazir. Although the word is Arabic, the office was of Persian origin. The office of the wazir did not exist under the pious caliphs nor under the Umayyads. It is an Abbasid institution borrowed by the Persians. The first individual to be called wazir under as Saffah was Abu Salman al Khallal.The task of the wazir was by no means easy. He had to please the despotic monarch at the one hand and the fickle populace at the other. The office required an intimate knowledge of administration, principles of taxation and the whole of Muslim law etc.
Interfaith Harmony in Islam.
The world was under social, religious and civilization’s wars that had ultimately taken world away from human values and weakening the social bindings among the all human beings. It was a huge threat for all human beings lest, these racism, religious; civilizations’ wars would have devastate the world. Therefore, it was a big need to bridge the social, religious and civil gaps among the human beings so that they come closer to each other and understand the other creeds and religions.[1]
Islam and Muslims are passing through a period of turmoil. Islam, as it is projected today, is a religion which preaches intolerance, hatred, enmity and violence and Muslims, being its followers are the practitioners of these evil virtues of life. Terms like fundamentalism, fanaticism, extremism and terrorism have unfortunately become synonymous with Islam and Muslims. As a community, it is being perceived as a group of terrorists, extremists, militants and fanatics.
As a religious philosophy and ideology, it is argued that Islam believes in using coercive methods including the use of force to further its ends. It negates pluralism, disapproves the right of a human being to think, act and perform independently. In essence, it discourages the very concept of inter faith and inter civilization dialogue and is opposed to harmony in society and discards the social theory of peaceful co-existence. It is widely believed in Europe and the west that most of the problems that the world of today is facing have their origin in Muslims and their stereotype mindset.[2]But the facts from Quran and Sunnah are against this type of views against Islam.
As Islam is a complete code of life it also gives complete moral and ethical system regarding the interfaith harmony or regarding the relations of Muslims with the followers of other religions, nations and states. To know about the concept of interfaith harmony in Islam the most important thing is to get the idea of interfaith harmony firstly.
Interfaith Harmony:
Harmony is about co-existence that means live and let live. It is a way forward towards peace and perhaps prosperity, both urgently required in a world of growing political and economic dissonance.
Inter-faith harmony is a conceivable condition, signifying peaceful co-existence among practitioners of various religious beliefs, aimed at eliminating the possibility of discord, violent or non-violent.
Such a condition calls for a global level of understanding that all religions are mutually acceptable per se in terms of their basic tenets as well as manifestations in human behavior along with all ramifications of traditions and their evolution to the contemporary life.[3]
Concept of interfaith harmony in Islam:
Islam is the religion of peace and toleration. It is the most supportive religion of interfaith harmony and commands to have good and friendly relations with the followers of other religions. Islam promotes the concept of interfaith harmony with the help of the dynamic law related to international relations known as law of siyer which through light on the concept of interfaith harmony in Islam.
A.    Islam on relations:
Islam is the religion of love, mercy and tolerance and it preaches freedom of belief and faith. It recognizes the rights of non Muslims living in an Islamic state. They were called protective people and zimmis because they live in peace and tranquility under the protection of the Islamic state.
Prophet PBUH practiced religious tolerance towards non Muslims and did not use force to compel people of other religions to embrace Islam as it would have been against the commands of the Quran.
“Let there be no compulsion in the religion.”
Muslims are here to command not to force Islam on people of other religions, because belief in any religion depends on faith, and faith can not be induced by force. In Islam, the religious toleration is so highly recommended that there is no room for any compulsion. To accept Islam, only argument and logic can be used to show others the guidance of islam. The quran advocates the just and kind treatment for non muslims. The Prophet PBUH was commanded by Allah to grant asylum to any unbeliever who asked for it.
Muslims believe in all previous messengers and all of them are held in equal esteem. The followers of christianty, judaism etc are called the people of the Book in the Quran. Prophet PBUH gave them special consideration and status in the islamic state of Madinah and freedom to practice their religion.He shoed immense good will and understanding towards them. Their scriptures and place of worship were respected. They enjoed complete security of their lives property and religion. No synagouge or church was destroyed. They were allowed to construct new worship places and repair the old ones. They were granted judicial antonomy. Their civil cases were decided according to their own laws and by their own courts. In addition, they were allowed to seek justice in a muslim court, if they so desired. The muslim authorities were not allowed to interfaie with their personal laws.
In fact, in safeguarding the rights of the non mulsims, an islamic state has gone to such extent  as to give them liberty of maintaing those practices which are entirely against the teachings of Islam.
For example, the consumption of alcohal is totally prohibited to a Muslim, yet the non muslims living in the country have liberty to drink alcohal. They have special permission of the stae to manufacture or import alcohal.
Islam insists of kind treatment of non muslims. Prophet PBUH said:
“If any one wrongs a man to whom, a treaty has been granted, or burdens him above his strength, I will advocate against him on the day of judgement”.
Hadrat umer RA treated non Muslims very kindly and justly. While imposing taxes upon them, he was very careful that enough was left for their maintenance. Even on his death bed, he leaves instructions that non Muslims should be treated justly and not over burdened with taxes.
These are the teachings and practices of Islam related to non Muslims and these teaching are the ethical and moral values actually which promotes the interfaith harmony.[4]
B.     Rights of Minorities:
An Islamic society is not formed of Muslims only, but of Muslims Christians and Jews living together under the legal system of Islam. The legal system applying to Jews and Christians is:
They have the same rights, and owe the same duties (as we do)”.
As a religion, Islam does not put itself in an attitude of conflict towards other Allah sent religions. Allah says in Quran:
“Say( O believers) we believe in Allah and that which has been transmitted to us, and in that which has been transmitted to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaaq, Jacob and the Tribes; and that which has been given to Moses and Jesus; and that which has been given to Prophet PBUH from their Lord. We do not discriminate between them and to Him do we surrender”.
So following are the rights of minorities living in Islamic state:
Ø  Muslims and the people of the Book can eat each others food, unless it is specifically prohibited, like pig and wine.
Ø  A Muslim can take a Christian and Jew for a wife and she has a right to stick to her faith but a Muslim female is not allowed to marry a MAN FROM People of the Book.
Ø  The people of the book have freedom to worship in churches and synagogues.
Ø  Islam gives them rights to own property in Islamic states.
Ø  Minorities have complete freedom to use their laws and implement their laws in the court while they can also access the Muslim judiciary if they wish.[5]

C.    Equality and fraternity in Islam:
According to Islamic perspective of ethics all human beings are equal and have the same status as the creation of Allah and whatever religion they may follow they will be equal in status as a human being and so far as their earthly origin is concerned, all are the off springs of   Adam and Eve which was the first pair of humans created by Allah Almighty so in this regard all human beings share the same origin and due to this all human beings are natural brother of each other. It also means that they all are equal and no one is superior over the other.
D.    Universal Peace:
The Model World according to Islam is the world of peace. Islam in itself means the religion of peace. Quran says: and the God calls for the home of peace. This is the message of Islam to mankind. It means to establish a world of peace on earth to be granted a world of peace in the eternal life in the hereafter.
Basic elements of building of a culture of peace and interfaith harmony are the following three.
v  Compassion
v  Forgiveness.
v  Respect for all.
Allah and His Prophet PBUH laid great stress on compassion. Prophet PBUH said:
O People, be compassionate to others so that you may be granted compassion by God.”
The Quran says about Forgiveness:
“When they are angered, they forgive”.
Third principle is respect to others and if one is respecting others he will surely get respect in return.
These elements are basic to form interfaith harmony between other nations and religions of the world. Where ever these three elements are found together the result will be ultimately peace and harmony. There is no place of violence in islam as Allah says in Quran:
“God does not love Fasad (Violence)”[6]

Islamic International Law or Law of Siyer:
 That part of the law and custom of the land and treaty obligations which a Muslim state observes in its dealings. Muslim international law, like other branches of Islamic law is based primarily on the two fundamental sources the Quran and the Sunnah. Like other branches of Islamic law, its rules have been developed in accordance with the conduct of the ‘model example’ set by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in his interaction with non-Muslims.
The term siyar (plural of sirah, which literally means conduct or behavior) itself indicates that the conduct of the prophet (PBUH) in his international dealings and constitutes the basis on which the detailed rules of law were developed. He fought battle with his enemies, sent envoys and wrote letters to his contemporary rulers; received delegations; led his followers, and himself participated, in negotiating various treaties and agreement of international import, and dealt with the questions of booty, prisoners of war, and acquisition of the enemy property. This entire conduct, coupled with the general principle laid down in the Quran provided the foundation for the branch of knowledge called siyar. In the Quran where the word can be found in six verses, it is used in the sense of “travel” or “to move” or in the sense of “move”.
Muhammad [Ibn al-hassan al-shaybani[ narrates from abu Hanifa, on the authority of ‘Alqamah ibn martad’ from ‘Abd Allah ibn Buradyah’ from his father [Buradyah] who reports: whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH)  sent an army or group of troops he used to admonish its leader to fear Allah in his personal behavior and to be pleasant to the Muslims who accompanied him.” Then he would say “Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah; fight only those who disbelieve in Allah. Do not misappropriate, do not commit treachery, do not mutilate (the dead) ; and do not kill a child. When you meet the polytheists, who are your enemy. Invite them to Islam. If they accept Islam, accept it from them and hold yourselves back from them.”
Allah says in Quran:
"And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you and transgress not the limits. Verily Allah loves not the transgressors" (ii. 190).
“And that you shall not kill, for that is forbidden by Allah, except for a just cause.”
The Army’s treatment of the disbeliever:
When the Muslim’s army fight against a country where the message of Islam has already reached, it is good if they are again invited to accept Islam. But if that is not done even then there is no harm. If an ambush is made against them {disbelievers} in the day-tine or during the night without formally inviting them to the Islam, it makes no difference. There is no harm if Muslims demolish their castles and flood them. They should not divide the spoils of war while they are still in the territory of war until they take it the territory of Islam and acquire full possession of it. However, if the acquisitions of war distributed there [in the territory of war] is also allowed. Abu Yusuf says:
“If the Government does not find any transport to carry them, they may be distributed while they are still in the territory of war.
·         If there is some food or fooder in the booty and someone needs it, he may take from it according to his need. Likewise, he can take something from the weaponry of the booty if he needs it for fighting; but he should return it to the booty as soon as his need is over. But it is not proper to do without need.
·         If the enemy hits him with arrow and he hits him back with it, or snatches a sword from someone from amongst the enemy and strikes with it, there is no harm in it.
·         However, the captives should not be distributed among the warriors, even though people need them, until these are taken to the territory of islam.
·         It has come down to us about Abu Bakar, Umar, Uthman and Ali (R.A) that they used to distribute one-fifth among the three categories of those entitled to the shares, the orphans, destitute and warfare’s.
·         While distributing the spoils, two shares will be allocated to the rider and one share to the foot-soldier.
·         When a warrior enters the territory of war along with the army as a rider but his horse perishes or gets wounded before he secures the spoils, he will have share of the rider.
·         When the army takes the women captive followed by her husband who is also taken captive sooner or later and either the women does not have menses during that period or has had up to three menses but she is not taken out of territory of war before of her husband is taken, their marriage shall continue. Whosoever, of the two is taken captive and brought to the territory of Islam before the other, there marriage shall cease to exist.
Difference between Jihad and Terrorism:
Jihad in Islam, a term meaning "struggle"; used without any qualifiers it is generally understood in the West to refer to a "holy war" on behalf of Islam. It signifies the exertion of one's power to the utmost of one's capacity in the cause of Allah. This is why the word Jihad has been used as the antonym to the word Qu, ud (sitting) in the Holy Qur'an (iv. 95). Thus Jihad in Islam is not an act of violence directed indiscriminately against the non-Muslims; it is the name given to an all-round struggle which a Muslim should launch against evil in whatever form or shape it appears. Qital fi sabilillah (fighting in the way of Allah) is only one aspect of Jihad.
“Those who believe fight in the way of Allah and those who disbelieve fight in the way of devil. So fight against the friends of Satan; verily weak indeed is the strategy of the devil" (iv. 76).
Here the Muslims have been exhorted to observe five principles of war:
  1. Be steadfast in the face of the enemy.
  2. Have full reliance on the help of Allah and remember Him much.
  3. Have the unity of purpose and solidarity of corporate life always before your eyes.
  4. Be fully aware of the lofty purpose before you in fighting.
  5. Don't be proud and boastful in your attitude and behavior.
Terrorism, however, is never to protect. The sole purpose of terrorism is to cause enough harm, pain and agony to someone to make him feel insecure. The word Terrorism would normally be used when referring to systematic episodes of mass destruction or killings. It would not be normally used to petty crimes. It has nothing to do with religion as neither Islam nor any other religion in the world preaches destruction and killings.
Terrorism is often fueled by materialistic or territorial goals generally with no regard to religion whereas a jihad is the struggle in the path of god and has no other goal apart from this.
Terrorism is always directed towards the killing of innocent civilians and may be by way of explosions, attacks, etc, while, jihad is not permitted against innocent.
Both these terms are vastly misused. While politicians the world over have often discredit their political rivals by calling or classifying them as terrorists and their struggles as terrorism, terrorists on the other hand have always tried to justify their acts and deeds by calling and categorizing them as jihad, however, there is no reference in Islam or any other religion where jihad justifies the killing of innocent people or damage to property.
Law of Blasphemy:
Blasphemy, in its literal meanings, is defined as a behavior or language expressing disrespect for God or for something sacred. Blasphemy is irreverence toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs. The Abrahamic religions condemn blasphemy vehemently. Some countries have laws to punish blasphemy, while others have laws to give recourse to those who are offended by blasphemy. Those laws may discourage blasphemy as a matter of blasphemous libel, vilification of religion, religious insult, or hate speech.
Blasphemy in Islam is any irreverent behavior toward holy personages, religious artifacts, customs, and beliefs that Muslims revere. The Quran and the hadith do not speak about blasphemy.  Jurists created the offence, and they made it part of Sharia.  Where Sharia pertains, the penalties for blasphemy can include fines, imprisonment,                           flogging, amputation, hanging, or beheading.  Muslim clerics may call for the punishment an
 Alleged blasphemer by issuing a fatwa. Islamic legal authorities agree that a blasphemer can be Muslim or non-Muslim. To be convicted of blasphemy, an individual must be an adult, of sound mind, and not under duress. Some jurisdictions do not punish individuals who commit blasphemy accidentally. The Maliki school of jurisprudence permits the exoneration of accused individuals who are converts to Islam.
Islam teaches us to well behave with non Muslims. Islam gives equal rights to every human being so there are some rules and regulations to do war against non-Muslims. Islam teaches that if your enemy attacks first then you should fight against them in your resistance and to save your self. There is no concept of killing others unjustly. Islam is a religion of peace, love and prosperity and there is no concept of violence in Islam.
“Allah will surely defend those who believe, Allah loves not the perfidious and the ungrateful. Permission to fight is granted to those against whom war is made, because they have been wronged, and Allah indeed has the power to help them. They are those who have been driven out of their homes unjustly only because they affirmed: our Lord is Allah. If Allah did not repel the aggression of some people by means of others, cloisters and churches and synagogues and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is oft commemorated, would surely be destroyed. Allah will surely help him who helps His cause; Allah is indeed powerful, Mighty.” (22.39-41)

Concept of interfaith harmony in other religions

The word "Christianity" itself, means "Believer in Christ." If you are a believer in this religion, you are called a "Christian". There are many different denominations of this religion, and the things they share are the belief that the Bible is the Word of God, and that Jesus Christ was the savior sent by God through His love.[7]

Concept of interfaith harmony in Christianity
They promote the concept of interfaith harmony in different ways the attitudes towards other religions, Christian beliefs about the status of non-Christian religion, to international relations and throw Universal Peace.

Christian attitudes towards other religions

  • Many Christians feel that, although members of other religions must be respected, everyone has the right to convert others, and Christianity is the only true religion.
  • Some Christians believe that all religions are equal and are just different ways of finding God. They have this attitude because of teachings such as ‘In my father’s house are many rooms’.
  • Some Christians think they should try to convert members from these other religions because Christianity is the only true religion. This idea can sometimes be referred to as evangelism.

Christian beliefs about the status of non-Christian religions:

·         Some Christians believe that there are many different religious paths to God, but
Only Christianity has the whole truth. Therefore, some Christians believe that good
Hindus, Jews etc are in fact ‘anonymous Christians’
·         Another view is that all religions are equal to each other and help people to find God. The Bible is one of many ‘words of God’. All of these holy books are important guides in the spiritual quest. The equality rests on the fact that religious people concentrate on a spiritual reality that they call God.[8]

Christian beliefs about forgiveness and reconciliation:
  • One of the most difficult things that Jesus told his followers to do was forgive, even those   people who were their enemies - ‘Love your enemies- pray for those who persecute you’

  • Jesus highlighted the need to forgive as God forgave us unconditionally.

  • Christians believe God is a ‘just’ God and people can be given punishments as well
           as receive forgiveness.[9]
Theory of Peace
It is Christian teaching that peace among persons, groups or nations is not possible without good will towards one another. And good will towards one another is not possible without acknowledging God as mankind's common father, and without living according to one's conscience and its dictates. Conscience is said is the voice of God speaking in silence, as it were, in the depth of one's heart. It is primarily peace of mind and heart: a state in which there is orderliness in one's relation to God, in the first place, and to others in the second place. This is what Christian teaching calls, Love of God and love of neighbor. Well ordered love for God above all things (for he deserves all love from his creatures) and love towards all men for God's sake is finally what makes for peace in the world. Man is naturally inclined to love himself; and so God commands man: Love your neighbor as you love yourself. This is called (in the Bible) the second Commandment, the first being, as said above, loving God above all. In these two commandments consists the whole happiness of man, which is only another way of saying 'peace on earth'. For there can be no happiness without peace. This peace is really a gift of God. Christ says "My peace I give you" and added "not as the world gives." The world seems to know only one kind of peace, i.e. mere absence of war. Christ says that real peace is that which comes from God, and not from the world. This is peace of soul, peace of mind, peace of heart which surpasses all mere human endeavors and understanding.
It is only when such a peace reigns in the human heart, that there will be no room for coveting or selfish thinking etc. which are the final causes of wars and conflicts between peoples and nations. Christ called his commandment to love one another as he himself loved mankind; it needs a tremendous spirit of goodness and love, a spirit of self-sacrifice even towards those who are not so lovable. All this makes the observance so difficult. But Christ neither did nor merely gives the commandment; he showed it by the example of his life, by forgiving even his murderers. He did it by providing powerful help through what are called 'Sacraments'. It is because this spiritual power is not used properly that Christians are not always able to live up to the serious obligations of Christian commitment. Hence it is that peace between individuals, families, as well as nations is not realized.[10]
Concept of interfaith harmony in Judaism
The word "Judaism" derives from the Greek Ioudaismos, a term first used in the intertestamental period by Greek speaking Jews to distinguish their religion from Hellenism. In the NT the word appears twice in reference to Paul's prior consuming devotion to Jewish faith and life.[11]
       Basic Doctrines and Beliefs
     Judaism was the first religion to teach Monotheism, or belief in one God. This belief is the basis of Judaism and is summed up in the opening words of the Shema, recited daily: "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One" (Deut. 6:4). Jews believe that God's providence extends to all people but that God entered into a special Covenant with the ancient Israelites. They do not believe that they were chosen for any special privileges but rather to bring God's message to humanity by their example. Belief in a coming Messiah has been a source of optimism for Jews. Judaism has historically put more stress upon the deed (miswa) than the creed ('ani ma 'amin, "I believe"). Nevertheless, from Talmudic times, as a way of life Judaism has been distinguished by giving special emphasis to certain beliefs and ethical values.
"By three things is the world sustained:
  • by the law,
  • by the (temple) service,
  • and by deeds of loving-kindness."
This basic teaching is further underscored by the threefold function of the synagogue as a "house of study" (for learning of Torah), "house of prayer" (for worship of God), and "house of assembly" (for the care of community needs.
In its modern expression Judaism is also shaped by the following traditional beliefs:
(1) Man is pivotal in the universe. He sees himself as partner with God in the unending process of creation. In rabbinic thought, "God needs man as much as man needs God."
(2) Man is a responsible moral agent, fully accountable for his acts. He is free to shape his own destiny.
(3) Human progress is possible as man realizes the great potential within him. The nature of man is basically good, or neutral, free from the encumbrance of original sin. Thus man may be optimistic and hopeful about his future.
(4) "This - worldliness" is a distinguishing mark of Judaism. The Hebrew Scriptures focus more on earth and man than upon heaven and God. Hence, lengthy speculation about the afterlife and otherworldly realities has never occupied a major position in Jewish thought.
(5) All of life must be regarded as sacred. Man is to seek to imitate God in sanctifying his every action. Time must be imbued with the seeds of eternity.
(6) Man is to pursue peace, justice, and righteousness. Salvation is dependent upon the betterment of society through good deeds. Historically, Jews have seen the Messiah as God's anointed human representative (not a God - man) who would usher in a golden age of societal and spiritual redemption. Today, however, Reform Judaism teaches that the Messianic Age will appear when humankind collectively, by its acts, reaches a level of true enlightenment, peace, and justice.[12]
Judaism stresses conduct rather than doctrinal correctness.
Its adherents have a considerable measure of latitude in matters of belief, especially concerning the messianic future and immortality. Judaism is a - world religion; its objective is a just and peaceful world order on earth. This hope is assured by the belief that God is the Lord of history as well as of nature.
Judaism attitudes towards other religions
The problem with other religions and people (individually) thinking God has "revealed Himself" to them is that they do so in a vacuum and make up their own rules as they go along. Man, by inclination, tends to be misled to do things that bring him immediate gratification and they can make up all kinds of reasons that this is what their "god" wants. By the same token some religions actually revel in denying themselves some of the physical joys that God gave us as gifts, this is just another form of man's inclination to evil misleading him (think of religions who deny sex to some members, or physically abuse themselves, or deny themselves other physical needs out of a claim to holiness).
Judaism and International Relations
 One way to look at Judaism and international relations is to envisage a continuum with a sacred ideal at one extreme and a profane reality at the other. The continuum begins with the ideal Jewish state, where the Jews fulfill the commandments of God. The Bible, however, is a record of the reality, a state that often did not measure up, but the covenant remains and so does its objective. Arguably then even a defective Jewish state offers a desirable and practical step forward, with its sacred potential.
A second ideal is the elimination of war and the transformation of international relations. The Bible seems to regard international relations as inherently sinful, tracing the origin of different nations to the tower of Babel. So the ideal would be the elimination of all of these conflicts, but because this is not yet the case, humanity needs rules and limits governing peace, war, sovereignty, contracts, and all the rest. The Biblical injunctions on these subjects offer the realistic counterpart.
A third ideal has to do with the unity of domestic and international affairs. The Bible suggests that a nation’s standing in the world ultimately depends upon the virtues of its domestic arrangements. Alas, the virtuous state is rarely the case. Judaism teaches the practical lesson that lack of domestic virtue will lead to a good deal of international trouble.
Fourth, and perhaps most significant of all, Judaism insists that beyond the state there is a higher allegiance; that the state and the ruler must abide by a set of rules that come from God. The reality, of course, is often very different. But the state is necessary nonetheless, for as the Jewish sages declared, even during Roman times, the absence of order makes a moral society impossible. [13]
Concept of interfaith harmony in Hinduism
Hinduism is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Purists refer to it more as Santana Dharma (the eternal path/law) than a religion, as it is believed to be a virtuous way of life. The religious texts of the Hindus span a very large corpus, most important of which are the four Vedas (called g-, Sāma- Yajus- and Atharva-) which focus on rituals, and the Upanishads and Puranas , which focus on spiritual insight, mythological accounts and philosophical teachings. Apart from this, there are a number of classical texts (shastras) of Hindu philosophy as well as the major epics—the Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata.
Hindu beliefs
While it is difficult to completely define Hindu beliefs, the major themes in Hinduism include Dharma (code of ethical conduct), Samsāra (The continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various Yogas (paths to attain Moksha). The concept of God is very complex. Most Hindus believe in Brahman, the supreme spirit that pervades the Universe, and that the human spirit or soul (ātman) is eternal and an indistinct part of Brahman. The goal of life is to realize non-duality, and to lead a life that leads to this realisation and thereby reaches Moksha (liberation or freedom). Other dualistic schools worship Brahman as Vishnu, Brahma, Shiva or Shakti depending on the sect. The Hindu scriptures and mythology refer to celestial entities, called Devas who embodiments of nature, or qualities. They are however often distinguished from a supreme personal God. Corporeal human manifestations of God are known as Avataras.Most practising Hindus engage in religious rituals daily to seek blessings from various Gods, engaging in worship (puja) of the divine idol, either in shrines at home or in temples.

Hindu attitudes towards others
About Hinduism’s attitude towards others, and how most typical Hindus don’t actively attempt to proselytize. This was illustrated in our mandir recently. We often have visits from school groups learning about religions practiced in the city, and occasionally we have adult groups visiting. One day when I came to the mandir for arti there was a group from a nearby church. When the arti had finished some of the visitors came over and talked to us, and one of them asked if I was a convert. One of the other Hindus present said that he wanted the visitors to be clear that Hindus do not try to convert people. If people come and are interested they will welcome and help them, but they don’t actively seek converts. I have heard it said that Hinduism should be offered like sweets on a plate. If someone wants to take them then they are welcome, but they are equally welcome to decline the offer and move on. This is certainly far more restrained than the practice of religions which actively proselytise, but is it sufficient to ensure that people who convert have really accepted the faith and have positive reasons for joining? To answer this question I will take a side-step and look at the acceptance of converts in Judaism.
The study of these religions this thing is clearly explains that all the ethical values of Islam and other religions promote the concept of interfaith hormoney. [14]

Ø  Runzo. Joseph. Ethics, religion and the good society(USA, john konx press,1992)
Ø  Farouki.Souha Taji, Islamic though in the twentieth centuray (New York I B Touris, 2004).
Ø  Pies, w Ronald, The ethics of the sages (USA, Jason Aronson Inc, 2000)
Ø  Hindery. Roderick, Comparative ethics in Hindu and Budhist traditions (New Dehli, Motilal Banarsidas publishers Lltd, 2004).
Ø  Burke, T.patrick,”the major religions”. (Australia, black well publisher, 2004)
Ø  Schweiker, William” the religious Ethics. (Australia, black well publisher, 2005)
Ø  Shahid, Ashraf,”Ethics in Islamic culture”(New dehli,India,2006)
Ø  Emrullah, Alî bin, Muhammed Hâdimî, Ethics in Islam (Turkey,Waqf Ikhlâs Publications,2001)
Ø  Afridi, maulana M R Khan. Encyclopedia of Islamic Shariat (New Dehli, pentagon press, 2010) 

[4] Afridi, maulana M R Khan. Encyclopedia of Islamic Shariat (New Dehli, pentagon press, 2010)  vol 4,pg 29-31
[5] Afridi, maulana M R Khan. Encyclopedia of Islamic Shariat (New Dehli, pentagon press, 2010)  vol 1,pg 218-222
[6] Ibid vol 6, pg 11-15.
[7] Schweiker, William” the religious Ethics. (Australia, black well publisher, 2005)

[8] Shahid, Ashraf,”Ethics in Islamic culture”(New dehli,India,2006)

[9] Schweiker, William” the religious Ethics. (Australia, black well publisher, 2005)

[10] Runzo. Joseph. Ethics, religion and the good society(USA, john konx press,1992)

[11] obid
[12] Runzo. Joseph. Ethics, religion and the good society(USA, john konx press,1992)

[13] Runzo. Joseph. Ethics, religion and the good society(USA, john konx press,1992)

[14] Hindery. Roderick, Comparative ethics in Hindu and Budhist traditions (New Dehli, Motilal Banarsidas publishers Lltd, 2004).